Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for coronavirus disease 2019 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE Although the application of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is accumulating, the feasibility and safety of this therapy remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of VV-ECMO in the treatment of these patients. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases through November 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the included studies were screened, and meta-analysis was performed by R software (version 4.0.2). RESULTS Forty-two studies including 2037 COVID-19 patients supported with VV-ECMO due to ARDS were identified. The pooled analysis revealed that 30-, 60-, and 90-day mortality among patients were respectively 46% (95% CI 37%-57%, I(2) = 66%), 46% (95% CI 30%-70%, I(2) = 93%), and 49% (95% CI 43%-58%, I(2) = 52%), and the pooled incidence rate of in-hospital mortality, major bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and renal replacement therapy were respectively 35%, 39%, 11%, 40%, 15%, 21%, and 44%. CONCLUSION Although COVID-19 patients may have a higher risk of bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute kidney injury during ECMO therapy, the survival rate was more than half of the cases. Our data may support the application of VV-ECMO in COVID-19 patients.
Recognition of Factors of Postoperative Complications of Knee Osteoarthritis Patients and Comprehensive Nursing Intervention
Computational and mathematical methods in medicine. 2021;2021:1840613
Knee osteoarthritis (KOA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by articular cartilage degeneration, cartilage exfoliation, osteophyte formation, and synovitis. It seriously affects the knee joint function and quality of life of patients. Total knee arthroplasty is now the most frequently used therapy for end-stage knee arthritis because it can successfully modify the line of lower extremities, restore knee joint function, alleviate pain, and enhance patients' quality of life; nevertheless, it may cause significant trauma and bleeding. It can easily lead to infection and anemia. In this study, the control group chose total knee arthroplasty and the observation group chose total knee arthroplasty combined with PRP. The results showed that the knee joint function score, visual analog score, blood transfusion, total blood loss, total postoperative drainage, and complications in the observation group were superior to those in the control group. Total knee arthroplasty takes a long time and needs a lot of soft tissue incision, which leads to a lot of blood loss and can cause a variety of complications. Gel has been shown in studies to successfully decrease blood loss during and after total knee arthroplasty, enhance knee joint function recovery, and improve patient quality of life. In this paper, the complications and causes of knee osteoarthritis after total knee arthroplasty were studied. Combined with comprehensive nursing intervention for postoperative recovery, it helps to improve the formation of thrombin and calcium ion, which can effectively reduce blood loss, relieve pain, and promote the recovery of knee joint function. This study analyzed the application of total knee arthroplasty combined with gel in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis.
Neuroimaging Markers of Cerebral Small Vessel Disease on Hemorrhagic Transformation and Functional Outcome After Intravenous Thrombolysis in Patients With Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in aging neuroscience. 2021;13:692942
Objective: The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) on neuroimaging of patients with acute ischemic stroke (AIS) treated with intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) is associated with an increased risk of hemorrhagic transformation (HT), symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (sICH), and poor functional outcome (PFO). Methods: A thorough search of several databases was carried out to identify relevant studies up to December 2020. We included studies of patients with AIS and neuroimaging markers of CSVD treated with IVT. The primary outcome was HT, and the secondary outcomes were sICH and 3-month PFO. The quality of the studies involved was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale (NOS). The meta-analysis with the fixed effects model was performed. Results: Twenty-four eligible studies (n = 9,419) were pooled in the meta-analysis. All included studies were regarded as high quality with the NOS scores of at least 6 points. The meta-analysis revealed associations between the presence of CSVD and HT, sICH, and the 3-month PFO after IVT. Compared with no CSVD, the presence of CSVD was associated with an increased risk of HT (OR: 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52-2.16), sICH (OR: 2.42, 95% CI: 1.76-3.33), and 3-month PFO (OR: 2.15, 95% CI: 1.89-2.44). For patients with AIS complicated with CSVD, compared with a CSVD score of 0-1, a CSVD score of 2-4 was associated with an increased risk of HT (OR: 3.10, 95% CI: 1.67-5.77), sICH (OR: 2.86, 95% CI: 1.26-6.49), and 3-month PFO (OR: 4.58, 95% CI: 2.97-7.06). Conclusion: Patients with AIS complicated with neuroimaging markers of CSVD are at increased risk of HT and 3-month PFO after IVT. However, it is still necessary to clarify the exact role of CSVD in the occurrence, development, and prognosis of AIS. Systematic Review Registration: www.ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier CRD4202123 3900.
Effect of ulinastatin on post-operative blood loss and allogeneic transfusion in patients receiving cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass: a prospective randomized controlled study with 10-year follow-up
J Cardiothorac Surg. 2020;15(1):98
BACKGROUND Major bleeding and allogeneic transfusion leads to negative outcomes in patients receiving cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Ulinastatin, a urine trypsin inhibitor, relieves systemic inflammation and improves coagulation profiles with however sparse evidence of its effects on blood loss and allogeneic transfusion in this specific population. METHODS In this prospective randomized controlled trial, 426 consecutive patients receiving open heart surgery with CPB were randomly assigned into three groups to receive ulinastatin (group U, n = 142), tranexamic acid (group T, n = 143) or normal saline (group C, n = 141). The primary outcome was the total volume of post-operative bleeding and the secondary outcome included the volume and exposure of allogeneic transfusion, the incidence of stroke, post-operative myocardial infarction, renal failure, respiratory failure and all-cause mortality. A ten-year follow-up was carried on to evaluate long-term safety. RESULTS Compared with placebo, ulinastatin significantly reduced the volume of post-operative blood loss within 24 h (688.39 +/- 393.55 ml vs 854.33 +/- 434.03 ml MD - 165.95 ml, 95%CI - 262.88 ml to - 69.01 ml, p < 0.001) and the volume of allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion (2.57 +/- 3.15 unit vs 3.73 +/- 4.21 unit, MD-1.16 unit, 95%CI - 2.06 units to - 0.26 units, p = 0.002). The bleeding and transfusion outcomes were comparable between the ulinastatin group and the tranexamic acid group. In-hospital outcomes and 10-year follow-up showed no statistical difference in mortality and major morbidity among groups. CONCLUSIONS Ulinastatin reduced post-operative blood loss and allogeneic erythrocyte transfusion in heart surgery with CPB. The mortality and major morbidity was comparable among the groups shown by the 10-year follow-up. TRIAL REGISTRATION The trial was retrospectively registered on February 2, 2010. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER https://www.clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01060189.
The effect of adjunctive intravitreal conbercept at the end of diabetic vitrectomy for the prevention of post-vitrectomy hemorrhage in patients with severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy: a prospective, randomized pilot study
BMC ophthalmology. 2020;20(1):43
BACKGROUND To investigate the effect of intravitreal conbercept (IVC) injections on the incidence of postoperative vitreous hemorrhage (VH) in eyes undergoing surgery for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy. METHODS This was a pilot prospective, comparative, and randomized study. Thirty patients, who underwent vitrectomy for severe proliferative diabetic retinopathy, were assigned randomly to either group 1 (intravitreal conbercept [IVC] injection at the end of pars plana vitrectomy) or group 2 (no IVC injection). Postoperative follow-up was performed on the first day, first week, first month, third month, sixth month and first year after surgery. The primary outcome was the incidence of postoperative VH. Secondary outcomes were the initial time of vitreous clearing (ITVC), best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and central retinal thickness (CRT) after surgery. RESULTS A total of 30 eyes, from 30 patients, were included. Fifteen eyes were enrolled in the IVC group and fifteen in the control group. The incidence of early and late postoperative VH was not significantly different between the control and IVC groups. ITVC was shorter in the IVC group than that in the control group, but this was not significant (7.38 +/- 10.66 vs 13.23 +/- 17.35, P = 0.31). Final BCVA, 1 year after surgery, showed significant improvement compared to baseline in both groups. However, analysis of the BCVA at any postoperative visit after surgery showed no significant differences between the two groups. There were two cases of recurrent VH identified at 3 and 6 months after surgery in each group, requiring a second round of surgery. Foveal thickness was significantly different between the two groups at the 3-month, 6-month and 1-year follow-up visits. CONCLUSIONS In this pilot study, the effect of IVC injection in reducing the incidence of postoperative VH after diabetic vitrectomy at the end of vitrectomy was not shown. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was registered with the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. (Reference Number: ChiCTR1800015751).
Efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid usage in patients undergoing posterior lumbar fusion: a meta-analysis
BMC musculoskeletal disorders. 2019;20(1):390
BACKGROUND The purpose of this meta-analysis is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of tranexamic acid (TXA) for patients with degenerative lumbar disc herniation, stenosis or instability undergoing posterior lumbar fusion (PLF) surgery. METHODS We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library until May 1, 2018. Two reviewers selected studies, assessed quality, extracted data, and evaluated the risk of bias independently. Weighted mean difference (WMD) and relative risk (RR) were calculated as the summary statistics for continuous data and dichotomous data, respectively. We chose fixed-effects or random-effects models based on I(2) statistics. RevMan 5.0 and STATA 14.0 software were used for data analysis. RESULTS Nine studies enrolling 713 patients for the study. The pooled outcomes demonstrated that TXA can decrease total blood loss (TBL) in patients underwent PLF surgery [WMD = -250.68, 95% CI (- 325.06, - 176.29), P<0.001], intraoperative blood loss (IBL) [WMD = -72.57, 95% CI (- 103.94, - 41.20), P<0.001], postoperative blood loss (PBL) [WMD = -127.57, 95% CI (- 149.39, - 105.75), P<0.001], and the loss of hemoglobin (Hb) in postoperative 24 h [WMD = -0.31, 95% CI (- 0.44, - 0.18), P<0.001]. However, there is no significant difference between two groups in transfusion rate [RR =0.34, 95% CI (0.09, 1.28), P = 0.11], and none thrombotic event was happened in the two groups. CONCLUSION Our meta-analysis demonstrated that TXA can decrease the Hb loss, TBL, IBL, PBL, and without increasing the risk of thrombotic event in patients with degenerative lumbar disc herniation, stenosis or instability underwent PLF surgery. However, there was no significant difference in blood transfusion rates between the two groups.
Impact of platelet-rich fibrin on mandibular third molar surgery recovery: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BMC oral health. 2019;19(1):163
BACKGROUND The present study investigated and evaluated the efficacy and safety of platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) in patients during bilateral mandibular third molars extraction by systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane library databases were retrieved, and the effect of PRF on the healing process of the alveolar socket after surgical extraction of the mandibular third molars was evaluated by meta-analysis. The postoperative pain, swelling, trismus, osteoblastic activity, and soft tissue healing were assessed, and the incidence of alveolar osteitis, weighted mean difference (WMD)/standard mean difference (SMD), the risk ratio (RR), and the 95% confidence interval (CI) were calculated. RESULTS The current results showed that the local application of PRF during lower third molar extraction prevented postoperative complications. Subsequently, the pain (SMD = - 0.53, 95% CI: - 1.02--0.05, Pheterogeneity = 0.001, I(2) = 75.7%) and swelling (WMD = - 0.55, 95% CI: - 1.08--0.01, Pheterogeneity = 0.573, I(2) = 0) were relieved and the incidence of alveolar osteitis was reduced (RR = 0.35, 95% CI: 0.16-0.75, Pheterogeneity = 0.597, I(2) = 0%). However, no significant difference was observed in trismus, osteoblastic activity, and soft tissue healing between the PRF and non-PRF groups. CONCLUSION The current study confirms that PRF only reduces some of the postoperative complications but does not prevent all the postoperative complications. PRF significantly relieved the pain and swelling and reduced the incidence of alveolar osteitis after the extraction of an impacted lower third molar.
A systematic review of tranexamic acid usage in patients undergoing femoral fracture surgery
Clinical Interventions in Aging. 2018;13:1579-1591.
Background: Patients undergoing femoral fracture surgery frequently require blood transfusion. Tranexamic acid (TXA) has been widely used to decrease transfusion rate in joint replacement surgery. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of TXA usage in femoral fracture surgery. Materials and methods: Studies involving TXA usage in femoral fracture surgery were searched through four electronic databases. The end points included total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rate, thromboembolic events, 90-day mortality, and operative time. The present study was performed following Cochrane Reviewers' Handbook and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement and was carried out by using Stata 14.0 software. Results: Eleven studies concerning intravenous (IV) application of TXA and three studies concerning topical administration of TXA were included. Twelve studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and one was a retrospective cohort study. Regarding IV TXA, our paper indicated that the IV TXA group had less total blood loss (weighted mean difference [WMD] = -319.282, P = 0.000), lower postoperative hemoglobin decline (WMD = -1.14, P = 0.000) and lower transfusion rate (risk difference [RD] = -0.172, P = 0.000). No significant differences were found in thromboembolic events (RD = 0.008, P = 0.507), 90-day mortality (RD = 0.009, P = 0.732) and operative time (WMD = -2.227, P = 0.103). Regarding topical TXA, no significant differences were found in the transfusion rate (RD = -0.098, P = 0.129), postoperative hemoglobin decline (WMD = -1.137, P = 0.231), thromboembolic events (RD = -0.017, P = 0.660) and operative time (WMD = -4.842, P = 0.136). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that both IV and topical application of TXA reduced transfusion rate in femoral fracture surgery. However, still further studies are needed to identify the optimal route of administration, TXA dosage and timing. In addition, high-quality RCTs with a large sample size are required to figure out the safety of TXA application, especially in the elderly, before its wide recommendation.
Combined application versus topical and intravenous application of tranexamic acid following primary total hip arthroplasty: a meta-analysis
Bmc Musculoskeletal Disorders. 2017;18((1)):90.
BACKGROUND The use of intravenous (IV) or topical tranexamic acid (TXA) in total hip arthroplasty has been proven to be effective and safe in total hip arthroplasty. However, which of these two administration routes is better has not been determined. The combined administration of TXA has been used in total knee arthroplasty with satisfactory results. We hypothesized that combined application of TXA may be the most effective way without increased rate of thrombotic events such as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolisms (PE) in patients subjected to primary total hip replacement (THA). A meta-analysis was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of the combined use of tranexamic acid (TXA) relative to topical or intravenous (IV) use alone for treatment of primary THA. The outcomes included total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, transfusion rates, and the incidence rates of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolisms (PE). METHODS We searched electronic databases including PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, the Chinese Biomedical Literature database, the CNKI database, and Wanfang Data until September 2016. The references of the included articles were also checked for additional potentially relevant studies. There were no language restrictions for the search. The data of the included studies were analyzed using RevMan 5.3 software. RESULTS Seven studies met the inclusion criteria, encompassing a total of 1762 patients. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, and transfusion rates were significantly lower for patients that received the combined treatment compared to patients that received either topical or intravenous administration of TXA. No statistical differences were found in the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). CONCLUSION The group that received the combined treatment had lower total blood loss, postoperative hemoglobin decline, and transfusion rates without an increased rate of thrombotic events (DVT or PE). The topical or intravenous use of TXA in primary THA is generally considered to be safe and effective. This meta-analysis demonstrated that combined TXA application may be superior to topical or intravenous application of TXA alone. However, larger, high-quality randomized control trials are required for greater confidence in this finding.
Timing of tourniquet release in total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis
BACKGROUND For total knee arthroplasty (TKA), the tourniquet is routinely employed for better visualization, less blood loss, and easier cementation. However, the time to release tourniquet remains controversial. Therefore, we performed current meta-analysis to assess whether releasing tourniquet before wound closure is more effective in reducing blood loss than releasing tourniquet after wound closure in TKA without an increased risk of complications. METHODS To conduct this meta-analysis, we searched Medline, Embase, Web of science, and the Cochrane library up to November 2016, for randomized controlled trials comparing tourniquet releasing before and after wound closure in TKA. A meta-analysis was performed following the guidelines of the Cochrane Reviewer's Handbook and the PRISMA statement. Methodological quality of the trials was assessed using the Cochrane risk assessment scale. The data of the included studies were analyzed using Stata 12.0. RESULTS Sixteen trials involving 1010 patients were identified in current meta-analysis. Our meta-analysis demonstrated that there were no significant differences in the 2 groups in terms of calculated blood loss (weighted mean difference [WMD] = 160.65, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.2 to 321.49, P = .05), postoperative blood loss (WMD = -45.41, 95% CI: -120.11 to 29.29, P = .233),postoperative hemoglobin decline (WMD = 0.16, 95% CI: -2.5 to 2.82, P = .905), transfusion volume (WMD = 79.19, 95% CI: -5.05 to 163.44, P = .065),transfusion rates (relative risk [RR] = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.95-1.50, P = .134), major complications (RR = 0.51, 95% CI: 0.15-1.73, P = .278), and deep vein thrombosis (RR = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.14-1.37, P = .157).Compared with the group of releasing tourniquet after wound closure, the group of releasing tourniquet before wound closure had a higher volume of total blood loss (WMD = 130.96, 95% CI: 58.83-203.09, P = .000) and a longer operation time (WMD = 6.56, 95% CI: 3.12-10.01, P = .000). However, releasing tourniquet before wound closure could reduce minor complications (RR = 0.53, 95% CI: 0.34-0.82, P = .004). CONCLUSIONS On the basis of current meta-analysis, the method of releasing tourniquet before wound closure could increase total blood loss and operation time; nevertheless, the risk of complications decreased. Thus, if patients are in severe anemia condition, the tourniquet perhaps should be released after wound closure to decrease blood loss. In contrary, releasing tourniquet before wound closure to decrease the risk of complications would be a better choice.