Prophylactic administration of tranexamic acid combined with thromboelastography-guided hemostatic algorithm reduces allogeneic transfusion requirements during pediatric resective epilepsy surgery: A randomized controlled trial
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2022;13:916017
Background: Intraoperative bleeding and allogeneic transfusion remain common problems in pediatric resective epilepsy surgery. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a widely recommended antifibrinolytic drug that reduces blood loss and transfusion requirements for bleeding patients. Thromboelastography (TEG)-guided hemostatic algorithm is commonly used in bleeding management. This trial was designed to validate the efficacy of a multimodal coagulation therapy involving continuous TXA infusion with TEG-guided hemostatic algorithm in reducing allogeneic exposure risk in pediatric resective epilepsy surgery. Methods: Eighty-three children undergoing resective epilepsy surgery were randomized into a treatment group (Group T; n = 42) and a control group (Group C; n = 41). Group T received prophylactic TXA (10 mg/kg followed by 5 mg/kg/h) with TEG-guided hemostatic algorithm, whereas Group C received conventional coagulation management. The primary outcome was allogeneic transfusion rate during surgery, and the secondary outcomes were intraoperative blood loss, incidence of postoperative seizures, and thromboembolic events during hospitalization. Results: The incidence of intraoperative allogeneic transfusion reduced by 34.7% with the use of a multimodal coagulation therapy (19.0% in Group T vs. 53.7% in Group C; RR 0.355, 95% CI 0.179-0.704; p = 0.001). This was mainly triggered by a significant reduction (44.1%) in intraoperative plasma transfusion (7.1% in Group T vs. 51.2% in Group C; RR 0.139, 95% CI 0.045-0.432; p = 0.000). The risk of intraoperative RBC transfusion was lower in Group T than in Group C, but the difference was not statistically significant (14.3% in Group T vs. 29.3% in Group C; RR 0.488, 95% CI 0.202-1.177; p = 0.098). No platelets were transfused in both groups. Further, 19 (45.2%) patients in Group T received fibrinogen concentrates guided by TEG data, whereas 1 (2.4%) patient in Group C received fibrinogen concentrates empirically. There were no significant differences in estimated blood loss and postoperative seizures between the two groups, and no thromboembolic events were observed after surgery. Conclusion: Prophylactic administration of TXA combined with TEG-guided hemostatic algorithm can be an effective multimodal coagulation strategy for reducing allogeneic transfusion requirements during pediatric resective epilepsy surgery. Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn/index.aspx, identifier ChiCTR1800016188.
Prevalence of positivity to antibodies to hepatitis C virus among volunteer blood donors in China: a meta-analysis
Public health. 2021;199:87-95
OBJECTIVES Safe blood transfusion plays an important role in the prevention of transfusion-transmissible infections, and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is one of the major problems associated with this procedure. This meta-analysis aimed to determine the prevalence of HCV infection in Chinese blood donors. STUDY DESIGN The study design of this study is a meta-analysis. METHODS Eligible studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, China Science and Technology Journal Database and Wanfang literature databases from 2010 to 2020. The effect measure was presented as HCV prevalence with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Q test was used to assess the heterogeneity, and the I(2) statistics was determined to decide whether a random effects model or a fixed effects model should be used as the pooling method. Subgroup analyses were also conducted. RESULTS A total of 62 eligible studies, including 9,007,220 HCV blood donors, were analysed. Of the total blood donors, 35,017 were infected with HCV. The pooled HCV prevalence was 0.415% (95% CI: 0.371-0.458). The subgroup analysis revealed that the prevalence of positivity to anti-HCV antibodies was significantly different in each year (P < 0.05). However, no significant difference was observed in HCV prevalence in terms of sex. Moreover, the prevalence of positivity to anti-HCV was remarkably higher in first-time blood donors than in repeat blood donors (P < 0.05), and the rate of HCV infection among university students was significantly lower than that among soldiers (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS The rate of HCV infection showed a downward trend from 2010 to 2014, increased in 2015-2016, and finally decreased in 2017-2018. Thus, the prevalence of HCV infection has decreased in Chinese blood donors after comprehensive prevention and treatment.
The impact of ABO blood group on COVID-19 infection risk and mortality: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Blood Reviews. 2020;:100785
The 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has become a global pandemic. Several studies report that ABO blood group polymorphism may be related to COVID-19 susceptibility and clinical outcomes; however, the results are controversial. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to investigate whether ABO blood groups are associated with increased COVID-19 morbidity and mortality. A total of 715 articles were retrieved from seven databases. Ten articles were selected for meta-analysis after removal of duplicates and two levels of screenings. Overall, individuals with blood group A [odds ratio (OR) = 1.33, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.14 to 1.56] and B (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13) had a substantially higher risk of COVID-19, whereas this was not the case for blood group AB (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.88 to 1.30). Individuals with blood group O was not prone to develop the disease (OR = 0.71, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.84). Moreover, the risk of COVID-19 was significantly associated with the Rh-positive blood group (OR = 1.22, 95% CI 0.99 to 1.50). A meta-analysis of 5 studies suggested that blood group A was associated with a significantly increased risk of COVID-19 mortality (OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.52). Mild publication bias was found in the included studies. This systematic review and meta-analysis indicated that blood groups A and B may be risk factors for COVID-19, whereas the blood group O appears to be protective. Blood group A may be related to unfavourable outcomes. Further rigorous and high-quality research evidence is needed to confirm this association.
Histamine2-Receptor Antagonists, Proton Pump Inhibitors, or Potassium-Competitive Acid Blockers Preventing Delayed Bleeding After Endoscopic Submucosal Dissection: A Meta-Analysis
Frontiers in pharmacology. 2019;10:1055
Background: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) was commonly used for en bloc resection in gastric cancer and adenoma with the risk of delayed bleeding after ESD. We conducted a direct and indirect comparison meta-analysis to evaluate the best choice in preventing post-ESD bleeding among proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), histamine2-receptor antagonists (H2RAs), and the most widely used potassium-competitive acid blocker, vonoprazan. Methods: The Pubmed, Cochrane Library, and Embase were searched for randomized trials. We pooled odds ratios (OR) for preventing post-ESD bleeding using meta-analysis. Results: Sixteen randomized trials met the inclusion criteria including 2,062 patients. Direct comparisons showed slightly significant efficacy in PPIs rather than H2RAs in preventing post-ESD bleeding [OR: 1.83; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10 to 3.05] and vonoprazan was better than PPIs (OR: 0.46; 95% CI: 0.25 to 0.86). The adjusted indirect comparison indicated vonoprazan was superior to H2RAs (OR: 0.30, 95% CI: 0.12 to 0.74). In subgroup analysis, PPIs had similar efficacy as H2RAs in 4 weeks, while PPIs were better than H2RAs in 8 weeks' treatment (OR: 1.91; 95% CI: 1.08 to 3.40). The superiority of vonoprazan than PPIs was more significant in combination therapy (OR: 0.18; 95% CI: 0.04 to 0.69). There was a significant difference in vonoprazan for 8 weeks of medication (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.21 to 0.92). Conclusions: The effects of vonoprazan is better than PPIs than H2RAs in preventing bleeding after ESD. When vonoprazan combined with mucosal protective antiulcer drug in treatment or used in 8 weeks of medication, the efficacy may be even better.
Thrombospondin-2 predicts response to treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin in children with Kawasaki disease
Bmj Paediatrics Open. 2018;2((1)):e000190.. Autoimmune Diseases
Objective: To investigate the predictive value of thrombospondin-2 (TSP-2) in assessing the response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in children with acute Kawasaki disease (KD). Methods: This was a cohort study with controls. 71 children with KD were recruited as the case group, including IVIG non-responder (n=17) and IVIG responder (n=54), and healthy children (n=27) and febrile children (n=30) were used as control groups. ELISA was used to measure plasma TSP-2 and TSP-1 levels. The rank-sum test was used to compare groups of non-normally distributed data. Predictive value was evaluated through the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Results: Compared with the control groups, the plasma TSP-2 levels in acute KD were significantly elevated (TSP-2: 31.00 (24.02, 39.28) vs 21.93 (17.00, 24.73) vs 16.23 (14.00, 19.64) ng/mL, P<0.001). The plasma TSP-2 level in the IVIG non-responder was significantly higher than the responder group (37.58 (31.86, 43.98) vs 27.84 (21.88, 33.48) ng/mL, P=0.002). When using an ROC curve to analyse the predictive effect of TSP-2 on non-responsiveness to IVIG treatment, the area under the curve was 0.752 (0.630, 0.875) (P=0.002). When the cut-off value for TSP-2 was 31.50 ng/mL, the sensitivity was 82.35%, the specificity was 64.81%. Conclusion: The plasma TSP-2 level was elevated in acute KD and it might be a novel predictor for IVIG resistance, which could help guide clinicians to choose individualised initial therapeutic regimens.
Age of transfused blood in critically ill adult trauma patients: a prespecified nested analysis of the age of blood evaluation randomized trial
BACKGROUND Blood transfusion is common in the resuscitation of patients with traumatic injury. However, the clinical impact of the length of storage of transfused blood is unclear in this population. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS We undertook a prespecified nested analysis of 372 trauma victims of the 2510 critically ill patients from 64 centers treated as part of the Age of Blood Evaluation (ABLE) randomized controlled trial. Patients were randomized according to their trauma status to receive either a transfusion of fresh blood stored not more than 7 days or standard-issue blood. Our primary outcome was 90-day all-cause mortality. RESULTS Overall, 186 trauma patients received fresh blood and 186 received standard-issue blood. Adherence to transfusion protocol was 94% (915/971) for all fresh blood transfused and 100% (753/753) for all standard-issue blood transfused. Mean +/- SD blood storage duration was 5.6 +/- 3.8 days in the fresh group and 22.7 +/- 8.4 days in the standard-issue group (p < 0.001). Ninety-day mortality in the fresh group was 21% (38/185), compared to 16% (29/184) in the standard-issue group, with an unadjusted absolute risk difference of 5% (95% confidence interval [CI], -3.1 to 12.6) and an adjusted absolute risk difference of 2% (95% CI, -3.5 to 6.8). CONCLUSION In critically ill trauma patients, transfusion of fresh blood did not decrease 90-day mortality or secondary outcomes, a finding similar to the overall population of the ABLE trial.
Effect of desmopressin administration on intraoperative blood loss and quality of the surgical field during functional endoscopic sinus surgery: a randomized, clinical trial
BMC Anesthesiology. 2015;15((1):):53.
BACKGROUND Bleeding during functional endoscopic sinus surgery is a challenge for the quality of the surgical field for surgeons. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of desmopressin premedication on blood loss and the quality of the surgical field in endoscopic sinus surgery. METHODS A total of 90 American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I-II patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery for chronic sinusitis. They were randomly allocated to receive either desmopressin 0.3 mug/kg or saline before the operation. Management of anesthesia was achieved with propofol and remifentanil infusions, with moderate, controlled hypotension. Blood loss and quality of the surgical field were assessed after surgery. Effects of desmopressin on anesthetic requirements and hemodynamic variables were analyzed. RESULTS Blood loss was significantly less in the desmopressin group (mean+/-SD, 42+/-8.7 ml) than in the control group (70+/-9.2 ml, P<0.001). Surgeons were more satisfied with the surgical field in the desmopressin group than in the control group (median score, 4 [3-5] vs. 7 [6-9], P<0.001). Requirements for remifentanil and esmolol were lower in the desmopressin group than in the control group. CONCLUSIONS Premedication with desmopressin 0.3 mug/kg can effectively reduce bleeding during endoscopic sinus surgery.
The efficacy of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent in primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery. 2014;9:90.
PURPOSE Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a popular procedure in severe osteoarthritis. But perioperative bleeding remains a problem. Floseal is a mixture of thrombin and bovine gelatin which can benefit a lot on reducing intraoperative and postoperative bleeding. However, there is no enough evidence judging its safety and efficiency. So a meta-analysis is conducted by us to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a thrombin-based hemostatic agent compared with conventional methods in TKA. METHOD Two independent reviewers selected literatures published before August 2014 from MEDLINE, Embase, and The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Other internet databases were also performed to identify trials according to the Cochrane Collaboration guidelines. High-quality randomized controlled trials (RCTs), prospective control trials (PCTs), and case controlled trials (CCTs) were selected. The meta-analysis was undertaken using RevMan 5.1 for Windows. RESULTS Three RCTs, one PCT, and one CCT met the inclusion criteria. There were significant differences in hemoglobin decline and calculated total blood loss between the Floseal group and control group. There were no significant differences in postoperative drainage volume, rate of transfusion requirement, incidence of wound infection, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), and pulmonary embolism (PE) between treatment and control groups. CONCLUSIONS The present meta-analysis indicates that a thrombin-based hemostatic agent can reduce hemoglobin decline and calculated total blood loss after TKA and is not related to adverse reactions or complications such as wound infection, DVT, and PE.