Cerebral Small Vessel Disease and Prognosis in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis of Cohort Studies
European journal of neurology. 2022
BACKGROUND To investigate whether cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) markers and the total CSVD burden are associated with functional outcome, mortality, stroke recurrence, and hematoma expansion in patients with spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS Following a previously registered protocol (PROSPERO protocol: CRD42021287743), we systematically searched PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE to identify relevant literature up to November 2021. Cohort studies that examined the association between CSVD markers (white matter hyperintensity [WMH], lacune, enlarged perivascular space [EPVS], cerebral microbleed [CMB], and brain atrophy) or CSVD burden and prognosis in patients with ICH were included. The pooled estimates were calculated using random effects models. RESULTS Forty-one studies with 19,752 ICH patients were pooled in the meta-analysis. WMH (OR=1.50, 95% CI=1.32 to 1.70), lacune (OR=1.32, 95% CI=1.18 to 1.49), CMB (OR=2.60, 95% CI=1.13 to 5.97) and brain atrophy (OR=2.22, 95% CI=1.48 to 3.31) were associated with worse functional outcome. CSVD markers concerning increased risk of mortality were WMH (OR=1.57, 95% CI=1.38 to 1.79) and brain atrophy (OR=1.84, 95% CI=1.11 to 3.04), while concerning increased risk of stroke recurrence were WMH (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.28 to 2.04) and lacune (OR=3.00, 95% CI=1.68 to 5.37). EPVS was not related to prognosis. There was a lack of association between CSVD markers and hematoma expansion. CSVD burden increased the risk of worse functional outcome, mortality, and stroke recurrence by 57%, 150%, and 44%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS In patients with spontaneous ICH, WMH, lacune, CMB, brain atrophy, and the total CSVD burden are associated with substantially increased risk of worse functional outcome, mortality, or stroke recurrence.
Application of enhanced recovery after surgery in total knee arthroplasty in patients with haemophilia A: A pilot study
Nursing open. 2021;8(1):80-86
AIM: To identify the effect of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) and rapid rehabilitation concepts on the outcomes of patients with haemophilia A undergoing total knee arthroplasty. DESIGN Randomized controlled trial. METHODS The primary endpoint was postoperative hospital stay. The secondary endpoints were pain scores, joint function scores, haemoglobin levels at 3 and 7 days after surgery and satisfaction with hospitalization. RESULTS Thirty-two patients were enrolled. Compared with the routine nursing group, the ERAS group showed shorter postoperative hospital stay (14.2 SD 0.8 vs. 16.6 ± 1.3 days, p < .001), smaller amounts of blood transfusion (924 SD 317 vs. 1,263 SD 449 ml, p = .020) and coagulation factors (37,325 SD 5,996 vs. 48,475 SD 8,019 U, p < .001), lower pain scores at 3 (3.3 SD 0.7 vs. 4.3 SD 0.7, p = .002) and 7 (2.3 SD 0.7 vs. 2.8 ± 0.5, p = .015) days, lower hospital for special surgery knee scores at 3 (59.9 SD 7.8 vs. 53.6 SD 5.9, p = .016) and 7 (77.9 SD 6.9 vs. 71.1 ± 7.1, p = .009) days and higher satisfaction with hospitalization (94.3 SD 1.4 vs. 92.7 SD 1.6, p = .004).
Liberal Transfusion versus Restrictive Transfusion and Outcomes in Critically Ill Adults: A Meta-Analysis
Transfusion medicine and hemotherapy : offizielles Organ der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Transfusionsmedizin und Immunhamatologie. 2021;48(1):60-68
OBJECTIVE We aimed to determine whether the restrictive red-cell transfusion strategy was superior to the liberal one in reducing all-cause mortality in critically ill adults. METHODS The MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library Central Register of Controlled Trials databases were searched from inception to January 2019 to identify meta-analyses or systematic reviews and published randomized controlled trials which were restrictive versus liberal blood transfusion with mortality as the endpoint in critically ill adults. We used two search routes whereby one search was restricted to systematic reviews, reviews, or meta-analysis, and the other was not restricted. There were no date restrictions, but language was limited to English and the population was restricted to critically ill adults. The data of study methods, participant characteristics, and outcomes were extracted and analyzed independently by 2 reviewers. The main outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS Through screening the obtained records, we enrolled 7 randomized clinical trials that included information on restrictive versus liberal red-cell transfusion and mortality of intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Involving a total of 7,363 ICU adult patients, ICU mortality (risk ratio [RR] 0.82, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.62, 1.08, p = 0.15), 28/30-day mortality (RR 0.98, 95% CI 0.84, 1.13, p = 0.74), 60-day mortality (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.87, 1.16, p = 0.91), 90-day mortality (RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.92, 1.14, p = 0.69), 120-day mortality (RR 1.29, 95% CI 0.67, 2.47, p = 0.44), and 180-day mortality (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.75, 1.12, p = 0.38) were not statistically significantly different when the restrictive transfusion strategy was compared with the liberal transfusion strategy. However, we surprisingly discovered that 112 out of 469 (24%) patients who received a unit RBC transfusion when hemoglobin was less than 7 g/dL, and 142 out of 469 (30.3%) who received a unit of RBC transfused with hemoglobin less than 9 g/dL, had died during hospitalization (RR 0.79, 95% CI 0.64, 0.97, p = 0.03). The results showed that the restrictive transfusion strategy could decrease in-hospital mortality compared with the liberal transfusion strategy. It was safe to utilize a restrictive transfusion threshold of less than 7 g/dL in stable critically ill adults. CONCLUSIONS In this study, we found that the restrictive red-cell transfusion strategy potentially reduced in-hospital mortality in critically ill adults with anemia compared with the liberal strategy.
The pharmacodynamic effect of terlipressin versus high-dose octreotide in reducing hepatic venous pressure gradient: a randomized controlled trial
Annals of translational medicine. 2021;9(9):793
BACKGROUND Vasoactive drugs can reduce portal venous pressure and control variceal bleeding. However, few studies have explored the hemodynamic effects of terlipressin and high-dose octreotide in such patients. Our purpose was to evaluate the hemodynamic changes and safety of using terlipressin and high-dose octreotide in patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis. METHODS A multi-center randomized controlled trial was conducted. Cirrhotic patients with a history of variceal bleeding were included. Terlipressin or high-dose octreotide was administered during the procedure of measuring hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). Hemodynamic parameters and symptoms were recorded. RESULTS A total of 88 patients were included. HVPG was significantly reduced at 10, 20, and 30 min after drug administration in the terlipressin group (16.3±6.4 vs. 14.7±5.9, 14.0±6.1, and 13.8±6.1, respectively, P<0.001) and the high-dose octreotide group (17.4±6.6 vs. 15.1±5.8, 15.3±6.2, and 16.1±6.0, respectively P<0.01). Decreased heart rate and increased mean arterial pressure were more often observed in the terlipressin group. The overall response rates were not significantly different between the groups (52.8% vs. 44.8%, P=0.524). The terlipressin group had significantly higher response rates at 30 min compared to the high-dose octreotide group in those with alcoholic liver cirrhosis [6/6 (100%) vs. 0/4 (0%), P=0.005]. The incidence of adverse drug events was rare and similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS Both terlipressin and high-dose octreotide were effective and safe for reducing HVPG. The pharmacodynamic effect of terlipressin persisted longer. The terlipressin group had higher response rates in those with alcoholic cirrhosis (trial number: NCT02119884).
Hypertension management in elderly with severe intracerebral hemorrhage
Annals of clinical and translational neurology. 2021
OBJECTIVE To explore the effect of individualized blood pressure (BP)-lowering treatment on the outcomes of elderly patients with severe intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). METHODS We performed an exploratory analysis of Controlling Hypertension After Severe Cerebrovascular Event (CHASE) trial, which was a multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical trial. Patients with severe ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (defined as GCS ≤ 12 or NIHSS ≥ 11) were randomized into individualized versus standard BP-lowering treatment in CHASE trial. In this exploratory analysis, patients with severe ICH were included. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients with 90-day functional independence defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) ≤2. RESULTS We included 242 patients with severe ICH in the present analysis, consisting of 142 patients aged <65 years and 100 patients aged ≥65 years. There were significant differences between patients aged ≥65 years and <65 years in the proportion of functional independence (47.9% vs. 15.0%, P < 0.001) and good outcome (73.9% vs. 50.0%, P < 0.001) at day 90. In patients aged ≥65 years, the adjusted individualized BP-lowering treatment had an unequivocal effect on the functional independence at day 90 (21.6% vs. 8.2%, odds ratio [OR]: 4.309, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.040-17.859, P = 0.044) and improved the neurological deficits at discharge (∆ NIHSS ≥ 4: 64.7% vs. 34.7%, OR: 4.300, 95% CI: 1.599-11.563, P = 0.004). INTERPRETATION Compared with the younger counterparts, the elderly patients (≥65 years) with acute severe ICH might benefit more from individualized BP-lowering treatment.
Effect of tourniquet application on cement penetration in primary total knee arthroplasty: a meta-analysis
Arthroplasty (London, England). 2021;3(1):29
BACKGROUND Tourniquet application is expected to improve surgery exposure and cementation process in total knee arthroplasty (TKA) but its effectiveness remains controversial and needs to be further explored. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effect of tourniquet in primary TKA. The hypothesis is that the tourniquet application affects the cement penetration in TKA. METHODS A search was conducted in PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for the potentially eligible articles. Two independent researchers reviewed the articles retrieved against the pre-designed inclusion and exclusion criteria. In primary TKA, cement penetration was assessed, and the data between the tourniquet-assisted and non-tourniquet-assisted TKAs were compared. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. RESULTS A total of 4 randomized controlled trials and 3 non-randomized controlled trials (involving 675 patients) were included. There was no significant difference between the tourniquet-assisted and non-tourniquet-assisted TKAs in terms of cement penetration (P > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the total surgical time, blood loss, blood transfusion, the Knee Society Score, and the visual analogue scale (VAS) between the two kinds of procedures (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS Tourniquet application may not affect cement penetration in primary TKA and may not help reduce blood loss, ease knee pain or improve the knee function. A surgeon may choose to use a tourniquet or not according to his or her own preference. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE Level Ib, meta-analysis.
Effect of topical tranexamic acid on post-traumatic elbow stiffness in patients treated with open arthrolysis: a prospective comparative study
Journal of shoulder and elbow surgery. 2020;29(7):1375-1379
BACKGROUND Elbow joint open arthrolysis is an effective method to release contracted tissue and débride heterotopic ossification in cases of post-traumatic elbow stiffness. Recurrence remains one of the most common concerns for surgeons. Soft tissue contracture may result from intra- and/or extra-articular bleeding, edema, effusion, and granulation. The increasing incidence of intraoperative and postoperative bleeding has caused uncertainty about surgical outcomes. Tranexamic acid (TXA) is effective for reducing surgery-related bleeding and effusions in total hip or knee arthroplasty. PURPOSE To investigate whether topical TXA can decrease blood loss and effusions in patients treated with elbow joint open arthrolysis and whether it affects final function. PATIENTS AND METHOD A prospective comparative study was conducted. Sixty-one patients with joint stiffness were enrolled and randomly divided into 2 groups: one consisting of 31 patients treated with topical TXA intraoperatively after open arthrolysis (experimental group) and the other consisting of 30 patients who received saline administration (control group). The operation time, tourniquet time, and intraoperative blood loss were recorded. Drainage volume, elbow rotation, elbow motion arc, Mayo Elbow Performance Score, and operation-related complications were followed up and recorded, whereas hematoma volume remaining in the joint space after drainage tube removal was assessed on ultrasonography. RESULTS Tourniquet time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative drainage were significantly lower in the TXA group than in the control group. However, no significant intergroup differences were found in the incidence of related complications and final function evaluated at the final follow-up. CONCLUSION Topical TXA improves surgical quality by controlling intraoperative bleeding, decreases the amount of blood loss soon after surgery, and could become a routine procedure in elbow joint open arthrolysis.
Effect of Convalescent Plasma Therapy on Time to Clinical Improvement in Patients With Severe and Life-threatening COVID-19
ImportanceConvalescent plasma is a potential therapeutic option for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but further data from randomized clinical trials are needed ObjectiveTo evaluate the efficacy and adverse effects of convalescent plasma therapy for patients with COVID-19 Design, Setting, and ParticipantsOpen-label, multicenter, randomized clinical trial performed in 7 medical centers in Wuhan, China, from February 14, 2020, to April 1, 2020, with final follow-up April 28, 2020 The trial included 103 participants with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 that was severe (respiratory distress and/or hypoxemia) or life-threatening (shock, organ failure, or requiring mechanical ventilation) The trial was terminated early after 103 of a planned 200 patients were enrolled InterventionConvalescent plasma in addition to standard treatment (n = 52) vs standard treatment alone (control) (n = 51), stratified by disease severity Main Outcomes and MeasuresPrimary outcome was time to clinical improvement within 28 days, defined as patient discharged alive or reduction of 2 points on a 6-point disease severity scale (ranging from 1 [discharge] to 6 [death]) Secondary outcomes included 28-day mortality, time to discharge, and the rate of viral polymerase chain reaction (PCR) results turned from positive at baseline to negative at up to 72 hours ResultsOf 103 patients who were randomized (median age, 70 years;60 [58 3%] male), 101 (98 1%) completed the trial Clinical improvement occurred within 28 days in 51 9% (27/52) of the convalescent plasma group vs 43 1% (22/51) in the control group (difference, 8 8% [95% CI, −10 4% to 28 0%];hazard ratio [HR], 1 40 [95% CI, 0 79-2 49];P = 26) Among those with severe disease, the primary outcome occurred in 91 3% (21/23) of the convalescent plasma group vs 68 2% (15/22) of the control group (HR, 2 15 [95% CI, 1 07-4 32];P = 03);among those with life-threatening disease the primary outcome occurred in 20 7% (6/29) of the convalescent plasma group vs 24 1% (7/29) of the control group (HR, 0 88 [95% CI, 0 30-2 63];P = 83) (Pfor interaction = 17) There was no significant difference in 28-day mortality (15 7% vs 24 0%;OR, 0 65 [95% CI, 0 29-1 46];P = 30) or time from randomization to discharge (51 0% vs 36 0% discharged by day 28;HR, 1 61 [95% CI, 0 88-2 93];P = 12) Convalescent plasma treatment was associated with a negative conversion rate of viral PCR at 72 hours in 87 2% of the convalescent plasma group vs 37 5% of the control group (OR, 11 39 [95% CI, 3 91-33 18];P < 001) Two patients in the convalescent plasma group experienced adverse events within hours after transfusion that improved with supportive care Conclusion and RelevanceAmong patients with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, convalescent plasma therapy added to standard treatment, compared with standard treatment alone, did not result in a statistically significant improvement in time to clinical improvement within 28 days Interpretation is limited by early termination of the trial, which may have been underpowered to detect a clinically important difference Trial RegistrationChinese Clinical Trial Registry:ChiCTR2000029757
Iron chelation therapy for myelodysplastic syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical and experimental medicine. 2019
Iron overload remains a concern in myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) patients especially those requiring recurrent blood transfusions. Whether iron chelating therapy (ICT) is beneficial to the long-term survival of myelodysplastic syndrome is still a controversial issue. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the relationship between ICT and long-term survival in patients with MDS. A total of 14 studies involving 7242 participants were identified; the outcomes revealed that for patients with MDS, ICT resulted in a lower risk of mortality compared to those with no ICT (HR 0.57; 95% CI 0.44-0.70; P < 0.001); what is more, ICT led to a lower risk of leukemia transformation (HR 0.70; 95% CI 0.52-0.93; P = 0.016). Results of subgroup analyses based on adequate ICT or any ICT, low/int-1 IPSS or unclassified IPSS and study types indicated that the ICT had a beneficial role in all these groups of patients.
Impact of Perioperative Levosimendan Administration on Risk of Bleeding After Cardiac Surgery: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
American journal of cardiovascular drugs : drugs, devices, and other interventions. 2019
BACKGROUND Levosimendan, a calcium sensitizer and potassium channel opener, has been demonstrated to improve myocardial function without increasing oxygen consumption and to show protective effects in other organs. Recently, a prospective, randomized controlled trial (RCT) revealed an association between levosimendan use and a possible increased risk of bleeding postoperatively. Levosimendan's anti-platelet effects have been shown in in vitro studies. Current studies do not provide sufficient data to support a relation between perioperative levosimendan administration and increased bleeding risk. PURPOSE Our goal was to investigate the relation between perioperative levosimendan administration and increased bleeding risk using a meta-analysis study design. METHODS The PubMed, Ovid, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant RCTs before July 1, 2019. The outcome parameters included reoperation secondary to increased bleeding in the postoperative period, the amount of postoperative recorded blood loss, and the need for transfusion of packed red blood cells (RBCs) and other blood products. RESULTS A total of 1160 patients in nine RCTs (576 in the levosimendan group and 584 in the control group) were included according to our inclusion criteria. Analysis showed that perioperative levosimendan administration neither increased the rate of reoperation secondary to bleeding nor increased the amount of postoperative chest tube drainage when compared with the control group. In terms of blood product transfusion, levosimendan did not influence the requirement for RBC transfusion, platelet transfusion nor fresh frozen plasma (FFP) transfusion. Levosimendan also did not shorten or prolong the aortic cross-clamp time or the cardiopulmonary bypass time. CONCLUSION The analyzed parameters, including reoperations due to bleeding, postoperative chest drainage and the requirement for blood products, revealed that levosimendan did not increase postoperative bleeding risk. More studies with a larger sample size are needed to address a more reliable conclusion due to study limitations.