Association of active immunotherapy with outcomes in cancer patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Cao C, Gan X, Hu X, Su Y, Zhang Y, Peng X
BACKGROUND During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are growing concerns about the safety of administering immunotherapy in cancer patients with COVID-19. However, current clinical guidelines provided no clear recommendation. METHODS Studies were searched and retrieved from electronic databases. The meta-analysis was performed by employing the generic inverse-variance method. A random-effects model was used to calculate the unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs with the corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS This meta-analysis included 20 articles with 6,042 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19. According to the univariate analysis, the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the mortality of cancer patients (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.68-1.25; P=0.61). Moreover, after adjusting for confounders, the adjusted OR for mortality was 0.51, with borderline significance (95% CI: 0.25-1.01; P=0.053). Similarly, the univariate analysis showed that the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the risk of severe/critical disease in cancer patients (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.47; P=0.66). No significant between-study heterogeneity was found in these analyses. CONCLUSIONS Accepting immunotherapy within 30 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 was not significantly associated with a higher risk of mortality or severe/critical disease of infected cancer patients. Further prospectively designed studies with large sample sizes are required to evaluate the present results.
Effect of platelet-rich plasma vs standard management for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer wounds: A meta-analysis
Gong F, Zhang Y, Gao J, Li X, Zhang H, Ma G, Huang Y, Zhang B, Zhao F
International wound journal. 2022
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We performed a meta-analysis to evaluate the effect of platelet-rich plasma vs standard management for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer wounds. A systematic literature search up to March 2022 was performed and 1435 subjects with diabetic foot ulcer wounds at the baseline of the studies; 723 of them were treated with platelet-rich plasma, and 712 used control. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated to assess the effect of platelet-rich plasma vs standard management for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcer wounds using the dichotomous method with a random or fixed-effect model. The use of autologous platelet-rich plasma resulted in significantly higher complete-healed diabetic foot ulcer wounds compared with control (OR, 1.95; 95% CI, 1.49-2.56, P < 0.001). The use of allogeneic platelet-rich plasma resulted in significantly higher complete-healed diabetic foot ulcer wounds compared with control (OR, 6.19; 95% CI, 2.32-16.56, P < 0.001). The use of autologous and allogeneic platelet-rich plasma resulted in significantly higher complete-healed diabetic foot ulcer wounds compared with control. Though, the analysis of outcomes should be with caution because of the low number of studies in certain comparisons, for example, allogeneic platelet-rich plasma compared with control.
Ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage in extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Jin Y, Zhang Y, Liu J
PURPOSE Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is employed to support critically ill COVD-19 patients. The occurrence of ischemic stroke and intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), as well as the implementation of anticoagulation strategies under the dual influence of ECMO and COVID-19 remain unclear. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to describe the ischemic stroke, ICH and overall in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 patients receiving ECMO and summarize the anticoagulation regimens. METHODS EMBASE, PubMed, Cochrane, and Scopus were searched for studies examining ischemic stroke, ICH, and mortality in COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO. The outcomes were incidences of ischemic stroke, ICH, overall in-hospital mortality and anticoagulation regimens. We calculated the pooled proportions and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to summarize the results. RESULTS We analyzed 12 peer-reviewed studies involving 6039 COVID-19 patients. The incidence of ischemic stroke had a pooled estimate of 2.2% (95% CI: 1.2%-3.2%). The pooled prevalence of ICH was 8.0% (95% CI: 6.3%-9.6%). The pooled estimate of overall in-hospital mortality was 40.3% (95% CI: 33.1%-47.5%). The occurrence of ICH was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO than in other respiratory ECMO [relative risk=1.75 (95% CI: 1.00-3.07)]. Unfractionated heparin was the most commonly used anticoagulant, and anticoagulation monitoring practice varied among centers. CONCLUSIONS Ischemic stroke and ICH were common under the double "hit" of COVID-19 and ECMO. The prevalence of ICH was significantly higher in COVID-19 patients supported with ECMO than non-COVID-19 patients requiring ECMO. Individualized anticoagulation regimens may be a good choice to balance thrombosis and bleeding. More detailed research and further exploration are needed to clarify the underlying mechanism and clinical management decisions.
Sirolimus plus prednisolone vs sirolimus monotherapy for kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: a randomized clinical trial
Ji Y, Chen S, Zhou J, Yang K, Zhang X, Xiang B, Qiu T, Gong X, Zhang Z, Lan Y, et al
The Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is characterized by life-threatening thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. This study compared the efficacy and safety of sirolimus plus prednisolone versus sirolimus monotherapy as treatment strategies for KHE with KMP in the largest cohort to date. Participants were randomized to receive either sirolimus in combination with a short course of prednisolone or sirolimus monotherapy for at least 12 months. The primary outcome was defined as achievement of a durable platelet response (platelet count >100×109/L) at week 4. Participants completed efficacy assessments 2 years after the initial treatment. At week 4, a durable platelet response was achieved by 35 of 37 patients given sirolimus and prednisolone compared with 24 of 36 patients given sirolimus monotherapy (difference 27.9%; 95% CI, 10.0% to 44.7%). Compared with the sirolimus monotherapy group, the combination treatment group showed improvements in terms of measures of durable platelet responses at all points during the initial 3-week treatment period, median platelet counts during weeks 1 to 4, increased numbers of patients achieving fibrinogen stabilization at week 4, and objective lesion responses at month 12. Patients receiving combination therapy had fewer blood transfusions and a lower total incidence of disease sequelae than patients receiving sirolimus alone. The frequencies of total adverse events and grade 3-4 adverse events during treatment were similar in both groups. The responses seen in patients with KHE with KMP were profound and encouraging, suggesting that sirolimus plus prednisolone should be considered a valid treatment for KHE with KMP. ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT03188068.
Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for coronavirus disease 2019 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Zhai K, Xu X, Zhang P, Wei S, Li J, Wu X, Gao B, Zhang Y, Li Y
OBJECTIVE Although the application of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is accumulating, the feasibility and safety of this therapy remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of VV-ECMO in the treatment of these patients. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases through November 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the included studies were screened, and meta-analysis was performed by R software (version 4.0.2). RESULTS Forty-two studies including 2037 COVID-19 patients supported with VV-ECMO due to ARDS were identified. The pooled analysis revealed that 30-, 60-, and 90-day mortality among patients were respectively 46% (95% CI 37%-57%, I(2) = 66%), 46% (95% CI 30%-70%, I(2) = 93%), and 49% (95% CI 43%-58%, I(2) = 52%), and the pooled incidence rate of in-hospital mortality, major bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and renal replacement therapy were respectively 35%, 39%, 11%, 40%, 15%, 21%, and 44%. CONCLUSION Although COVID-19 patients may have a higher risk of bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute kidney injury during ECMO therapy, the survival rate was more than half of the cases. Our data may support the application of VV-ECMO in COVID-19 patients.
Association of Use of Tourniquets During Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Elderly Patients With Post-operative Pain and Return to Function
Zhao J, Dong X, Zhang Z, Gao Q, Zhang Y, Song J, Niu S, Li T, Chen J, Wei FL
Frontiers in public health. 2022;10:825408
OBJECTIVE During total knee arthroplasty (TKA), tourniquet may negatively impact post-operative functional recovery. This study aimed at investigating the effects of tourniquet on pain and return to function. METHODS Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 15th, 2020. Search terms included; total knee arthroplasty, tourniquet, and randomized controlled trial. RCTs evaluating the efficacies of tourniquet during and after operation were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Effect estimates with 95% CIs were pooled using the random-effects model. Dichotomous data were calculated as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mean differences (MD) with 95% CI were used to measure the impact of consecutive results. Primary outcomes were the range of motion (ROM) and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. RESULTS Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 2,393 patients were included in this study. The mean age is 65.58 years old. Compared to no tourniquet group, the use of a tourniquet resulted in suppressed ROM on the 3rd post-operative day [MD, -4.67; (95% CI, -8.00 to -1.35)] and the 1st post-operative month [MD, -3.18; (95% CI, -5.92 to -0.44)]. Pain increased significantly when using tourniquets on the third day after surgery [MD, 0.39; (95% CI, -0.19 to 0.59)]. Moreover, tourniquets can reduce intra-operative blood loss [MD, -127.67; (95% CI, -186.83 to -68.50)], shorter operation time [MD, -3.73; (95% CI, -5.98 to -1.48)], lower transfusion rate [RR, 0.85; (95% CI, 0.73-1.00)], higher superficial wound infection rates RR, 2.43; [(5% CI, 1.04-5.67)] and higher all complication rates [RR, 1.98; (95% CI, 1.22-3.22)]. CONCLUSION Moderate certainty evidence shows that the use of a tourniquet was associated with an increased risk of higher superficial wound infection rates and all complication rates. Therefore, the findings did not support the routine use of a tourniquet during TKA.
The Therapeutic Efficacy and Safety of Intravenous Immunoglobulin in Dermatomyositis and Polymyositis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Xiong A, Qiang Y, Cao Y, Shuai Y, Chen H, Xiang Q, Hu Z, Song Z, Zhou S, Zhang Y, et al
Modern rheumatology. 2022
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in the treatment of dermatomyositis (DM) and polymyositis (PM). METHODS A comprehensive systematic review was conducted in accordance with the guidelines of PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews And Meta-analyses). PubMed, Embase, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) were searched to find articles published between July 1919 and May 2021 concerning IVIG therapy in PM/DM. We analyzed continuum data through mean difference and the estimated pooled improvement rate through Log transformation. We calculated all the effect measures with a 95% confidence interval. The I²statistic was calculated to assess statistical heterogeneity across the studies. I²values of 25%, 50% and 75% were defined as low, moderate and high, respectively. All analyses were conducted using R Studio, Version 3.6.3. RESULTS Seventeen papers pertinent to our questions were found: three case-control studies, fourteen non-randomized studies. We evaluated the efficacy of IVIG in DM/PM by the indicators of creatine kinase (CK), Manual Muscle Test (MMT) scores, Medical Research Council (MRC) scale, the Activities of Daily Living (ADL) scale and the pooled improvement rate. In a meta-analysis, we found that IVIG significantly improved the level of CK (SMD -0.69, 95%CI -0.93, -0.46; P<0.0001), MMT (SMD 1.12; 95%CI 0.77, 1.47; P<0.00001), MRC (SMD 1.59; 95%CI 0.86, 2.33; P<0.00001), ADL (SMD 1.07; 95%CI 0.59, 1.56; P<0.0001). The CK levels in DM and PM were also significantly improved after IVIG (SMD = -0.73, 95%CI -1.12, -0.34; P=0.0002; and SMD = -3.29, 95%CI -5.82, -0.76; P < 0.0001, respectively). The meta-analysis of three RCTs showed that there was a statistically significant improvement after IVIG (SMD 0.63; 95%CI 0.22, 1.03; P=0.002). In a random effects model pooled muscle power improvement rate was 77% (95% CI: 66.0-87.0%). Meta-analyses of IVIG as first-line therapy showed a significant improvement of CK level (SMD -0.71; 95%CI -1.12, -0.30; P=0.0007). In three studies, the polled improvement rate of esophageal disorders was 88% (95% CI: 80.0-95.0%). There was no statistically significant difference in the rate of improvement between the number of courses < 2 and ≥ 2 (0.80 vs. 0.80 %, P = 0.9). The corticosteroid-sparing effect of IVIG was also well demonstrated, with the proportion of corticosteroid-sparing success reaching 81.8% (72/88). Adverse reactions included headache, fever, Hypotension and dizzy and so on. Mild cortical stroke, staphylococcal septicaemia, asymptomatic myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, deep vein thrombosis and subendocardial ischemia as severe adverse events were found in seven cases. CONCLUSION IVIG seems to be an effective drug for DM\PM, improving muscle strength, CK levels and esophageal involvement, and it is well tolerated by patients.
Erythropoietin Improves Poor Outcomes in Preterm Infants with Intraventricular Hemorrhage
Song J, Wang Y, Xu F, Sun H, Zhang X, Xia L, Zhang S, Li K, Peng X, Li B, et al
CNS drugs. 2021
BACKGROUND Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a common complication in preterm infants that has poor outcomes, especially in severe cases, and there are currently no widely accepted effective treatments. Erythropoietin has been shown to be neuroprotective in neonatal brain injury. OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate the protective effect of repeated low-dose recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) in preterm infants with IVH. METHODS This was a single-blinded prospective randomized controlled trial. Preterm infants ≤ 32 weeks gestational age who were diagnosed with IVH within 72 h after birth were randomized to receive rhEPO 500 IU/kg or placebo (equivalent volume of saline) every other day for 2 weeks. The primary outcome was death or neurological disability assessed at 18 months of corrected age. RESULTS A total of 316 eligible infants were included in the study, with 157 in the rhEPO group and 159 in the placebo group. Although no significant differences in mortality (p = 0.176) or incidence of neurological disability (p = 0.055) separately at 18 months of corrected age were seen between the rhEPO and placebo groups, significantly fewer infants had poor outcomes (death and neurological disability) in the rhEPO group: 14.9 vs. 26.4%; odds ratio (OR) 0.398; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.199-0.796; p = 0.009. In addition, the incidence of Mental Development Index scores of < 70 was lower in the rhEPO group than in the placebo group: 7.2 vs. 15.3%; OR 0.326; 95% CI 0.122-0.875; p = 0.026. CONCLUSIONS Treatment with repeated low-dose rhEPO improved outcomes in preterm infants with IVH. TRIAL REGISTRATION The study was retrospectively registered on ClinicalTrials.gov on 16 April 2019 (NCT03914690).
Application of Platelet-Rich Fibrin Derivatives for Mandibular Third Molar Extraction Related Post-Operative Sequelae: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis
Bao M, Du G, Zhang Y, Ma P, Cao Y, Li C
Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery : official journal of the American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. 2021
PURPOSE Leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin (L-PRF) and advanced-platelet-rich fibrin (A-PRF) that are derivatives of PRF (platelet-rich fibrin) accelerate wound healing and reduce postoperative sequelae after tooth extraction. This network meta-analysis aimed to investigate the effectiveness of L-PRF and A-PRF in mandibular third molar extraction and provide suggestions for alleviating postoperative symptoms and signs. METHODS A comprehensive search of the literature was conducted in PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and SinoMed databases up to Oct 9, 2020. Three types of randomized controlled trials were included to investigate the effects of PRF derivatives after extracting mandibular third molars: A-PRF and L-PRF groups; A-PRF and control groups; L-PRF and control groups. Their relative effectiveness and ranking were assessed using network meta-analysis and the surface under the cumulative ranking curve (SUCRA) with STATA 16.0 and Revman 5.3, respectively. RESULTS Ten randomized controlled trials were included, with 307 mandibular third molar extraction patients involved. The results showed that A-PRF had the best effect among the 3 groups in improving postoperative pain on the third (SUCRA = 98.2%) and seventh (SUCRA = 88.4%) days; L-PRF promoted soft tissue healing (MD=-0.90, 95% CI [-1.40, -0.40], P = .0004) on the seventh day compared with the control. However, other comparisons showed no significant differences (P > .05). CONCLUSION The limited results confirmed that PRF derivatives only reduced some postoperative symptoms and did not prevent them all. Application of A-PRF after third molar extraction reduced postoperative pain, and L-PRF improved the degree of soft tissue healing.
Use of platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Miron RJ, Moraschini V, Fujioka-Kobayashi M, Zhang Y, Kawase T, Cosgarea R, Jepsen S, Bishara M, Canullo L, Shirakata Y, et al
Clinical oral investigations. 2021
OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.