Venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for coronavirus disease 2019 patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE Although the application of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VV-ECMO) in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is accumulating, the feasibility and safety of this therapy remain controversial. We aimed to evaluate the effect of VV-ECMO in the treatment of these patients. METHODS A comprehensive literature search was performed using PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform databases through November 2021. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, the included studies were screened, and meta-analysis was performed by R software (version 4.0.2). RESULTS Forty-two studies including 2037 COVID-19 patients supported with VV-ECMO due to ARDS were identified. The pooled analysis revealed that 30-, 60-, and 90-day mortality among patients were respectively 46% (95% CI 37%-57%, I(2) = 66%), 46% (95% CI 30%-70%, I(2) = 93%), and 49% (95% CI 43%-58%, I(2) = 52%), and the pooled incidence rate of in-hospital mortality, major bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke, thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, and renal replacement therapy were respectively 35%, 39%, 11%, 40%, 15%, 21%, and 44%. CONCLUSION Although COVID-19 patients may have a higher risk of bleeding, hemorrhagic stroke, and acute kidney injury during ECMO therapy, the survival rate was more than half of the cases. Our data may support the application of VV-ECMO in COVID-19 patients.
Sirolimus plus prednisolone vs sirolimus monotherapy for kaposiform hemangioendothelioma: a randomized clinical trial
The Kasabach-Merritt phenomenon (KMP) in kaposiform hemangioendothelioma (KHE) is characterized by life-threatening thrombocytopenia and consumptive coagulopathy. This study compared the efficacy and safety of sirolimus plus prednisolone versus sirolimus monotherapy as treatment strategies for KHE with KMP in the largest cohort to date. Participants were randomized to receive either sirolimus in combination with a short course of prednisolone or sirolimus monotherapy for at least 12 months. The primary outcome was defined as achievement of a durable platelet response (platelet count >100×109/L) at week 4. Participants completed efficacy assessments 2 years after the initial treatment. At week 4, a durable platelet response was achieved by 35 of 37 patients given sirolimus and prednisolone compared with 24 of 36 patients given sirolimus monotherapy (difference 27.9%; 95% CI, 10.0% to 44.7%). Compared with the sirolimus monotherapy group, the combination treatment group showed improvements in terms of measures of durable platelet responses at all points during the initial 3-week treatment period, median platelet counts during weeks 1 to 4, increased numbers of patients achieving fibrinogen stabilization at week 4, and objective lesion responses at month 12. Patients receiving combination therapy had fewer blood transfusions and a lower total incidence of disease sequelae than patients receiving sirolimus alone. The frequencies of total adverse events and grade 3-4 adverse events during treatment were similar in both groups. The responses seen in patients with KHE with KMP were profound and encouraging, suggesting that sirolimus plus prednisolone should be considered a valid treatment for KHE with KMP. ClinicalTrial.gov, number NCT03188068.
Association of active immunotherapy with outcomes in cancer patients with COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis
BACKGROUND During the COVID-19 pandemic, there are growing concerns about the safety of administering immunotherapy in cancer patients with COVID-19. However, current clinical guidelines provided no clear recommendation. METHODS Studies were searched and retrieved from electronic databases. The meta-analysis was performed by employing the generic inverse-variance method. A random-effects model was used to calculate the unadjusted odds ratios (ORs) and adjusted ORs with the corresponding 95% CIs. RESULTS This meta-analysis included 20 articles with 6,042 cancer patients diagnosed with COVID-19. According to the univariate analysis, the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the mortality of cancer patients (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.68-1.25; P=0.61). Moreover, after adjusting for confounders, the adjusted OR for mortality was 0.51, with borderline significance (95% CI: 0.25-1.01; P=0.053). Similarly, the univariate analysis showed that the acceptance of immunotherapy within 30 days before COVID-19 diagnosis did not increase the risk of severe/critical disease in cancer patients (OR: 1.07; 95% CI: 0.78-1.47; P=0.66). No significant between-study heterogeneity was found in these analyses. CONCLUSIONS Accepting immunotherapy within 30 days before the diagnosis of COVID-19 was not significantly associated with a higher risk of mortality or severe/critical disease of infected cancer patients. Further prospectively designed studies with large sample sizes are required to evaluate the present results.
Association of Use of Tourniquets During Total Knee Arthroplasty in the Elderly Patients With Post-operative Pain and Return to Function
Frontiers in public health. 2022;10:825408
OBJECTIVE During total knee arthroplasty (TKA), tourniquet may negatively impact post-operative functional recovery. This study aimed at investigating the effects of tourniquet on pain and return to function. METHODS Pubmed, Embase, and Cochrane Library were comprehensively searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published up to February 15th, 2020. Search terms included; total knee arthroplasty, tourniquet, and randomized controlled trial. RCTs evaluating the efficacies of tourniquet during and after operation were selected. Two reviewers independently extracted the data. Effect estimates with 95% CIs were pooled using the random-effects model. Dichotomous data were calculated as relative risks (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI). Mean differences (MD) with 95% CI were used to measure the impact of consecutive results. Primary outcomes were the range of motion (ROM) and visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores. RESULTS Thirty-three RCTs involving a total of 2,393 patients were included in this study. The mean age is 65.58 years old. Compared to no tourniquet group, the use of a tourniquet resulted in suppressed ROM on the 3rd post-operative day [MD, -4.67; (95% CI, -8.00 to -1.35)] and the 1st post-operative month [MD, -3.18; (95% CI, -5.92 to -0.44)]. Pain increased significantly when using tourniquets on the third day after surgery [MD, 0.39; (95% CI, -0.19 to 0.59)]. Moreover, tourniquets can reduce intra-operative blood loss [MD, -127.67; (95% CI, -186.83 to -68.50)], shorter operation time [MD, -3.73; (95% CI, -5.98 to -1.48)], lower transfusion rate [RR, 0.85; (95% CI, 0.73-1.00)], higher superficial wound infection rates RR, 2.43; [(5% CI, 1.04-5.67)] and higher all complication rates [RR, 1.98; (95% CI, 1.22-3.22)]. CONCLUSION Moderate certainty evidence shows that the use of a tourniquet was associated with an increased risk of higher superficial wound infection rates and all complication rates. Therefore, the findings did not support the routine use of a tourniquet during TKA.
Use of platelet-rich fibrin for the treatment of periodontal intrabony defects: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Clinical oral investigations. 2021
OBJECTIVES This study aims to compare the treatment outcomes of periodontal intrabony defects by using platelet-rich fibrin (PRF) with other commonly utilized modalities. MATERIALS AND METHODS The eligibility criteria comprised randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing the clinical outcomes of PRF with that of other modalities. Studies were classified into 10 categories as follows: (1) open flap debridement (OFD) alone versus OFD/PRF; (2) OFD/bone graft (OFD/BG) versus OFD/PRF; (3) OFD/BG versus OFD/BG/PRF; (4-6) OFD/barrier membrane (BM), OFD/PRP, or OFD/enamel matrix derivative (EMD) versus OFD/PRF; (7) OFD/EMD versus OFD/EMD/PRF; (8-10) OFD/PRF versus OFD/PRF/metformin, OFD/PRF/bisphosphonates, or OFD/PRF/statins. Weighted means and forest plots were calculated for probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and radiographic bone fill (RBF). RESULTS From 551 articles identified, 27 RCTs were included. The use of OFD/PRF statistically significantly reduced PD and improved CAL and RBF when compared to OFD. No clinically significant differences were reported when OFD/BG was compared to OFD/PRF. The addition of PRF to OFD/BG led to significant improvements in CAL and RBF. No differences were reported between any of the following groups (OFD/BM, OFD/PRP, and OFD/EMD) when compared to OFD/PRF. No improvements were also reported when PRF was added to OFD/EMD. The addition of all three of the following biomolecules (metformin, bisphosphonates, and statins) to OFD/PRF led to statistically significant improvements of PD, CAL, and RBF. CONCLUSIONS The use of PRF significantly improved clinical outcomes in intrabony defects when compared to OFD alone with similar levels being observed between OFD/BG and OFD/PRF. Future research geared toward better understanding potential ways to enhance the regenerative properties of PRF with various small biomolecules may prove valuable for future clinical applications. Future research investigating PRF at histological level is also needed. CLINICAL RELEVANCE The use of PRF in conjunction with OFD statistically significantly improved PD, CAL, and RBF values, yielding to comparable outcomes to OFD/BG. The combination of PRF with bone grafts or small biomolecules may offer certain clinical advantages, thus warranting further investigations.
Clinical studies on platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy for chronic cutaneous ulcers: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials
Advances in wound care. 2021
SIGNIFICANCE Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) may be a potential drug for treatment of chronic refractory ulcers, which increase the risk of systemic infection and local canceration. However, the efficacy and safety of clinical application of PRP are still controversial. Thus, this study was aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of PRP in patients with chronic ulcers. Recent Advances: For this meta-analysis, Cochrane's Library, MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, and Web of Knowledge databases were searched. Results were pooled using a random-effects model. The primary outcome was the proportion of completely healed chronic ulcers. CRITICAL ISSUES Seventeen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Compared with the control group, PRP significantly increased the fraction of healed ulcers (pooled RR =1.50; 95% CI 1.20 to 1.87; I2=47.8%). In autologous PRP (APRP) and homologous PRP (HPRP) subgroups, there were statistical differences between the control group vs. treatment subgroup (pooled RR=1.30, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.54, I2=25.7%; pooled RR=3.53, 95% CI 1.94 to 6.43, I2=0.0%, respectively). In terms of percent of chronic ulcers area healed, there was a statistically significant difference between the PRP-treated group vs. the control group (SMD=1.37, 95%CI=0.91 to 1.82, I2=22.1 %). As for PRP safety, there existed a statistically significant difference between the APRP subgroup and the HPRP subgroup, respectively (pooled RR=0.58; 95% CI 0.35 to 0.98; I2=0.0%) and (pooled RR=4.12; 95% CI 1.55 to 10.96; I2=6.8%). FUTURE DIRECTIONS Our findings shows that PRP may be a beneficial treatment of chronic skin ulcers and that APRP may be much safer than HPRP.
Restrictive versus liberal transfusion thresholds in very low birth weight infants: A systematic review with meta-analysis
PloS one. 2021;16(8):e0256810
BACKGROUND To assess the efficacy and safety of restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion thresholds in very low birth weight infants. METHODS We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane database without any language restrictions. The last search was conducted in August 15, 2020. All randomized controlled trials comparing the use of restrictive versus liberal red blood cell transfusion thresholds in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants were selected. Pooled risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous variable with 95% confidence intervals were assessed by a random-effects model. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. RESULTS Overall, this meta-analysis included 6 randomized controlled trials comprising 3,483 participants. Restrictive transfusion does not increase the risk of all-cause mortality (RR, 0.99; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.17; I2 = 0%; high-quality evidence), and does not increase the composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (RR, 1.01, 95% CI, 0.93-1.09; I2 = 7%; high-quality evidence) or other serious adverse events. Results were similar in subgroup analyses of all-cause mortality by weight of infants, gestational age, male infants, and transfusion volume. CONCLUSIONS In very low birth weight infants, a restrictive threshold for red blood cell transfusion was not associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality, in either short term or long term.
Very low birth weight infants (6 studies, n= 3,483).
Restrictive red blood cell transfusion threshold.
Liberal red blood cell transfusion threshold.
Restrictive transfusion did not increase the risk of all-cause mortality (RR, 0.99; I2 = 0%; high-quality evidence), and did not increase the composite outcome of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (RR, 1.01; I2 = 7%; high-quality evidence) or other serious adverse events. Results were similar in subgroup analyses of all-cause mortality by weight of infants, gestational age, male infants, and transfusion volume.
The rule of brain hematoma pressure gradient and its influence on hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage operation
Scientific reports. 2021;11(1):4599
To comparatively study the size of and variation in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient for different surgical methods for hypertensive intracerebral haemorrhage (HICH) and analyse the gradient's influence on surgical procedures and effects of the haemorrhage. Seventy-two patients with HICH treated from 1/2019 to 12/2019 were randomly divided into two groups, namely, the keyhole endoscopy and large trauma craniotomy groups, according to different operative methods. Intraoperative changes in intracranial pressure (ICP) were monitored to calculate intraoperative alterations in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient. Intraoperative characteristics (operative time, bleeding volume, volume of blood transfusion, and haematoma clearance rate) and postoperative characteristics (oedema, postoperative activities of daily living (ADL) scores, mortality rate and rebleeding rate) were compared between the two groups. In the keyhole endoscopy group, ICP decreased slowly; the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient was large, averaging 251.1 ± 20.6 mmH(2)O, and slowly decreased. The mean operative time was 83.6 ± 4.3 min, the mean bleeding volume was 181.2 ± 13.6 ml, no blood transfusions were given, the average postoperative haematoma clearance rate was 95.6%, the rate of severe oedema was 10.9%, and the average postoperative ADL score was 85.2%. In the large trauma craniotomy group, ICP rapidly decreased after craniotomy. When the haematoma was removed, the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient was small, averaging 132.3 ± 10.5 mmH2O, and slowly decreased. The mean operative time was 232 ± 26.1 min, the mean bleeding volume was 412.6 ± 35.2 ml, the average volume of blood transfusion was 281.3 ± 13.6 ml, and the average postoperative haematoma clearance rate was 82.3%; moreover, the rate of severe oedema was 72.1%, and the average postoperative ADL score was 39.0%. These differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05). Neither the death rate (P > 0.05, 2.7% VS 2.8%) nor rebleeding rate (P > 0.05, 2.7% VS 2.8%) showed any obvious changes. The magnitude and variation in the 'brain-haematoma' pressure gradient for different surgical methods significantly influence surgical procedures and effects of HICH. During keyhole endoscopy surgery, this gradient was relatively large and slowly decreased; the haematoma was therefore easier to remove. Advantages of this approach include a high haematoma clearance rate, decreased bleeding volume, decreased operative time, reduced trauma, decreased postoperative brain oedema and improved postoperative recovery of neurological function.Chinese Clinical Trial Register: ChiCTR1900020655 registration in 12/01/02,019 registration in 28/02/02,020 Number: NCOMMS-20-08,091.
Preradiosurgery embolization in reducing the postoperative hemorrhage rate for patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Neurosurgical review. 2021
Few studies have examined the postoperative hemorrhage rate of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treated by embolization prior to stereotactic radiosurgery. The objective of this analysis was to compare the postoperative hemorrhage rate between AVMs treated with and those treated without preradiosurgery embolization. A systematic search of the PubMed and Embase databases was performed with no restriction on the publication period. Based on Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we included studies with sufficient baseline and outcome data. The analysis was performed using Comprehensive Meta-Analysis (CMA) 2.0. Eleven studies comprising 2591 patients were eligible for analysis. There was no significant difference in the postoperative hemorrhage rate between patients who had undergone embolization followed by SRS and those who had undergone SRS alone (OR 1.140, 95% CI 0.851-1.526, p = 0.38). The obliteration rate was significantly lower in the E + SRS group than in the SRS group (OR 0.586, 95% CI 0.398-0.863, p = 0.007). No significant difference in permanent neurological deficits was identified between patients who had undergone embolization followed by SRS and those who had undergone SRS alone (OR 1.175, 95% CI 0.626-2.206, p = 0.616). Available data suggested that preradiosurgery embolization did not reduce the postoperative hemorrhage rate and resulted in a significantly lower obliteration rate than treatment with SRS alone.
Balanced crystalloids versus saline in critically ill patients: The PRISMA study of a meta-analysis
OBJECTIVE To compare the safety of balanced crystalloids and saline among critically ill patients in intensive care unit (ICU). METHODS The Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane Library databases were systematically searched from the inception dates to May 17, 2020 in order to identify randomized controlled trials which evaluated the safety of balanced crystalloids and saline in critically ill patients. The primary outcome was major adverse kidney events within 30 days (MAKE30). The second outcomes included 30-day mortality, ICU mortality, In-hospital mortality, ICU length of stay, hospital length of stay, creatinine highest before discharge (mg/dl) and needs for renal replacement therapy (RRT). RESULTS A total of nine randomized controlled trials involving 19,578 critical ill patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The outcomes of this meta-analysis showed that balanced crystalloids treatment shared the same risk of MAKE30 with saline treatment among critical ill patients [RR = 0.95; 95%CI, 0.88 to 1.01; Z = 1.64 (P = .102)]. The clinical mortality which included 30-day mortality [RR = 0.92; 95%CI, 0.85 to 1.01; Z = 1.78 (P = .075)], ICU mortality [RR = 0.92; 95%CI, 0.83 to 1.02; Z = 1.67 (P = .094)] and In-hospital mortality [RR = 0.93; 95%CI, 0.71 to 1.21; Z = 0.55 (P = .585)] were similar between balanced crystalloids treatment and saline treatment among critical ill patients. Patients who received balanced crystalloids treatment or saline treatment needed the same length of ICU stay [WMD = 0.00; 95%CI, -0.09 to 0.10; Z = 0.09 (P = .932)] and hospital stay [WMD = 0.59; 95%CI, -0.33 to 1.51; Z = 1.26 (P = .209)]. Critical ill patients who received balanced crystalloids treatment or saline treatment had the same level of creatinine highest before discharge [WMD = 0.01; 95%CI, -0.02 to 0.04; Z = 0.76 (P = .446)] and needs for RRT [RR = 1.04; 95%CI, 0.75 to 1.43; Z = 0.21 (P = .830)]. Similar results were obtained in subgroups of trials stratified according to the age of patients (children or adults). CONCLUSIONS When compared with saline, balanced crystalloids could not reduce the risk of MAKE30, 30-day mortality, ICU mortality and in-hospital mortality, could not reduce the length of ICU stay, length of hospital stay, the level of creatinine highest before discharge and the needs for RRT among critical ill children and adults. Therefore, it was still too early for balanced crystalloids to replace normal saline among critical ill patients.