Intra-articular injections of platelet-rich plasma decrease pain and improve functional outcomes than sham saline in patients with knee osteoarthritis
Knee surgery, sports traumatology, arthroscopy : official journal of the ESSKA. 2022
PURPOSE To compare the long-term clinical efficacy provided by intra-articular injections of either Pure Platelet-rich Plasma (P-PRP) or sham saline to treat knee osteoarthritis (KOA). METHODS This prospective, parallel-group, double-blind, multi-center, sham-controlled randomized clinical trial recruited participants with KOA from orthopedic departments at nine public hospitals (five tertiary medical centers, four secondary medical units) starting January 1, 2014, with follow-up completed on February 28, 2021. Participants were randomly allocated to interventions in a 1:1 ratio. Data were analyzed from March 1, 2021, to July 15, 2021. Three sessions (1 every week) of P-PRP or sham saline injected by physicians. The primary outcome was the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index (WOMAC) at 3, 6, 12, 24, 60 months of follow-up. Secondary outcomes included the International Knee Documentation Committee (IKDC) subjective score, visual analogue scale (VAS) score, intra-articular biochemical marker concentrations, cartilage volume, and adverse events. Laboratory of each hospital analyzed the content and quality of P-PRP. RESULTS 610 participants (59% women) with KOA who received three sessions of P-PRP (n = 308, mean age 53.91 years) or sham saline (n = 302, mean age 54.51 years) injections completed the trial. The mean platelet concentration in PRP is 4.3-fold (95% confidence interval 3.6-4.5) greater than that of whole blood. Both groups showed significant improvements in IKDC, WOMAC, and VAS scores at 1 month of follow-up. However, only the P-PRP group showed a sustained improvement in clinical outcome measurements at month 24 (P < 0.001). There were statistically significant differences between the P-PRP and sham saline groups in all clinical outcome measurements at each follow-up time point (P < 0.001). The benefit of P-PRP was clinically better in terms of WOMAC-pain, WOMAC-physical function and WOMAC-total at 6, 12, 24, and 60 months of follow-up. No clinically significant differences between treatments were documented in terms of WOMAC-stiffness at any follow-up. A clinically significant difference favoring P-PRP group against saline in terms of IKDC and VAS scores was documented at 6, 12, 24 and 60 months of follow-up. At 6 months after injection, TNF-α and IL-1β levels in synovial fluid were lower in the P-PRP group (P < 0.001). Tibiofemoral cartilage volume decreased by a mean value of 1171 mm(3) in the P-PRP group and 2311 mm(3) in the saline group over 60 months and the difference between the group was statistically significant (intergroup difference, 1140 mm(3), 95% CI - 79 to 1320 mm(3); P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS In this randomized clinical trial of patients with KOA, P-PRP was superior to sham saline in treating KOA. P-PRP was effective for achieving at least 24 months of symptom relief and slowing the progress of KOA, with both P-PRP and saline being comparable in safety profiles.
Efficacy and Safety of Platelet-Rich Plasma in Melasma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Dermatology and therapy. 2021
INTRODUCTION Melasma is a chronic and recurrent skin problem for which an effective therapy is currently lacking. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has recently emerged as a novel treatment for melasma, but to date there has been no systematic evaluation of its efficacy and safety. METHODS The Web of Science, PubMed, EMBASE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) and the Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant articles using the search items "melasma," "chloasma" and "platelet-rich plasma." STATA version 15.1 software was used to analyze data. Study outcomes were calculated using standardized mean differences with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). RESULTS The database search identified ten studies involving 395 adult patients that met the inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. Analysis of pre- and post-treatment data from these studies revealed that the post-treatment modified Melasma Area and Severity Index (mMASI) score decreased by 1.18 (95% CI 0.89-1.47; p = 0.02). Subjective satisfaction evaluation of PRP treatment showed that melasma treated with the combination therapy of PRP + microneedling may have been the most efficacious treatment compared to PRP alone or in combination with intradermal injection. Adverse reactions were minor, with only a few patients reporting local congestion, temporary erythema, hyperpigmentation and discoloration. CONCLUSION These results support the efficacy and safety of PRP used in combination or alone as treatment for melasma.
Metabolomics-Based Clinical Efficacy of Compound Shenlu Granule, a Chinese Patent Medicine, in the Supportive Management of Aplastic Anemia Patients: A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial
Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine : eCAM. 2021;2021:6655848
OBJECTIVE To explore the clinical efficacy and mechanism of compound Shenlu granule (SLG) treatment in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). METHODS A total of 89 AA patients were randomly divided into an SLG supportive group (group A, n = 44) and a control group (group B, n = 45) while continuing Western medical management. After 6 months, hemograms, traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) syndrome scores, and overall clinical efficacy rate were assessed. Serum metabolomics characteristics were observed using ultraperformance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after SLG intervention. RESULTS The levels of red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), and platelet (PLT) were increased in both groups after treatment for 6 months (P < 0.05), and in group A, the elevation of PLT became much more significant (P < 0.01). The TCM syndrome score was lower in group A than in group B after treatment (P < 0.05). Metabolomics data showed a significant difference in the patients using SLG after 6 months, and 14 biomarkers were identified. CONCLUSION SLG supportive treatment showed positive results in patients with AA, and metabolomics data indicated that SLG influenced aminoacyl-tRNA biosynthesis and glycerophospholipid metabolism to gradually return to normal.
Randomized Trial of Different initial IVIG Regimens in Kawasaki Disease
Pediatrics international : official journal of the Japan Pediatric Society. 2021
BACKGROUND We aimed to assess the efficacy of different initial intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) regimens in Kawasaki disease (KD) patients to find more cost-effective therapy options. METHODS A multicentre, open-label, blind-endpoint randomized controlled trial was conducted from January 2014 to December 2015. KD Patients within 10 days of illness were randomly assigned to receive different IVIG regimens (Group A, 2 g/kg once; Group B, 1 g/kg for 2 consecutive days; Group C, 1 g/kg once) and aspirin 30mg/kg/d. Primary outcomes included hours to defervescence and development of coronary artery lesions (CAL) during the study period. Major secondary outcomes included total fever days, total dose of IVIG, changes of laboratory data, length of stay, and hospitalization expenses. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02439996). RESULTS A total of 404 patients underwent randomization. No difference was found in the outcomes of defervescence among three groups at 6, 12, 24, and 36 hours after completion of initial IVIG infusion. There were no differences in the incidence of CAL during the study period (at week 2, month 1, month 3, and month 6 of illness), changes of laboratory data, total fever days and length of stay. Group C patients had the lowest total dose of IVIG (mean: 1.2 vs 2.2 vs 2.1 g/kg; P<0.001) and hospitalization expenses (mean: 8443.8 vs 10798.4 vs 11011.4 RMB; P<0.001) than other two groups. CONCLUSIONS A single dose of 1g/kg IVIG is a low-cost treatment with the same efficacy as 2 g/kg IVIG and can be an option for the initial therapy of KD patients.
Supplementation with Iron in Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension: Two Randomized Crossover Trials
Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2021
RATIONALE Iron deficiency, in the absence of anaemia, is common in patients with idiopathic and heritable pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) and is associated with a worse clinical outcome. Oral iron absorption may be impeded by elevated circulating hepcidin levels. The safety and benefit of parenteral iron replacement in this patient population is unclear. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the safety and efficacy of parenteral iron replacement in pulmonary arterial hypertension. METHODS In two randomised, double blind, placebo-controlled 12 week crossover studies, 39 patients in Europe received a single infusion of ferric carboxymaltose (Ferinject®) 1000 mg (or 15 mg/kg if weight < 66.7Kg) or saline as placebo and 17 patients in China received iron dextran (Cosmofer®) 20 mg iron/kg body weight or saline placebo. All patients had idiopathic or heritable PAH and iron deficiency at entry as defined by: a serum ferritin < 37 µg/l or iron < 10.3 µmol/l or transferrin saturations < 16.4%. RESULTS Both iron treatments were well tolerated and improved iron status. Analysed separately and combined, there was no effect on any measure of exercise capacity (using cardiopulmonary exercise testing or 6 minute walk test) or cardio-pulmonary haemodynamics, as assessed by right heart catheterisation, cardiac magnetic resonance or plasma NT-proBNP, at 12 weeks. CONCLUSION Iron repletion by administration of a slow release iron preparation as a single infusion to PAH patients with iron deficiency without overt anaemia was well tolerated but provided no significant clinical benefit at 12 weeks. Clinical trial registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01447628).
Risk factors for mortality of diffuse alveolar hemorrhage in systemic lupus erythematosus: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Arthritis research & therapy. 2021;23(1):57
BACKGROUND Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a rare but life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The current knowledge of the prognostic factors for SLE-associated DAH is controversial. This meta-analysis was undertaken to investigate the relevant risk factors for mortality in SLE-associated DAH. METHODS Studies were searched from PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases published up to May 27, 2020, and were selected or removed according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two reviewers extracted data independently from the enrolled studies, and the odds ratios (OR) or the standardized mean difference (SMD) was utilized to identify and describe the prognostic factors for mortality. RESULTS Eight studies encompassing 251 patients with SLE-associated DAH were included in the meta-analysis. No significant publication bias was shown. Age at the diagnosis of DAH (SMD = 0.35, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.08, 0.61), P = 0.01, I(2) = 0.0%) was found to be an independent risk factor of mortality. Longer lupus disease duration (SMD = 0.28, 95% CI (0.01, 0.55), P = 0.042, I(2) = 0.0%), concurrent infection (OR = 2.77, 95% CI (1.55, 4.95), P = 0.001, I(2) = 37.5%), plasmapheresis treatment (OR = 1.96, 95% CI (1.04, 3.70), P = 0.038, I(2) = 14.6%), and mechanical ventilation (OR = 6.11, 95% CI (3.27, 11.39), P < 0.0001, I(2) = 23.3%) were also related to poor survival, whereas no noticeable relationships were revealed between survival and concurrent lupus nephritis (OR = 5.45, 95% CI (0.52, 56.95), P = 0.16, I(2) = 58.4%) or treatment of cyclophosphamide (CTX) (OR = 0.74, 95% CI (0.16, 3.41), P = 0.70, I(2) = 75.5%). CONCLUSIONS Older age at the diagnosis of DAH, longer disease duration of SLE, concurrent infection, plasmapheresis treatment, and mechanical ventilation were found related to increased mortality in patients with SLE-associated DAH according to our meta-analysis. However, due to limited studies with heterogeneity, these results should be interpreted cautiously. Notably, severe diseases rendered the requirement of plasmapheresis treatment and mechanical ventilation are themselves associated with poor outcome. Randomized trials of therapeutics are needed to determine the most efficacious strategies for SLE-associated DAH for better management of this life-threatening complication.
Role of anti-allergic agents on attenuating transfusion reactions in adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis
Transfusion and apheresis science : official journal of the World Apheresis Association : official journal of the European Society for Haemapheresis. 2021;:103041
BACKGROUND Anti-allergic agents (e.g. dexamethasone, chlorpheniramine or promethazine) are commonly administered to patients prior to blood product transfusions. However, the use of these agents is largely experience-based instead of evidence-based. This meta-analysis aimed to explore the evidence behind using anti-allergic agents to attenuate transfusion reactions. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Pubmed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, Wanfang, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biomedical literature (CMB) databases were all queried for related articles. Data from groups treated with and without anti-allergic agents were collected for meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3. Baseline characteristics and univariate statistics between groups were compared using SPSS 19.0. RESULTS Eight eligible articles (six case control studies and two randomized controlled trials, all with high risks of bias) were identified (22060 total cases). Administered anti-allergic agents in these studies only included dexamethasone, chlorpheniramine or promethazine. Baseline characteristics showed no significant age or gender differences between treatment or control groups. There were no significant differences between the pooled experimental or control groups (for each of the three medications) in terms of fever, pruritis, rash, airway spasm or overall transfusion reaction rates. CONCLUSION There is no evidence that dexamethasone, chlorpheniramine or promethazine can prevent transfusion reactions. Avoiding the arbitrary use of such anti-allergic agents before blood transfusions may potentially avoid needless adverse drug reactions.
Crizanlizumab and comparators for adults with sickle cell disease: a systematic review and network meta-analysis
BMJ open. 2020;10(9):e034147
OBJECTIVES Treatment options for preventing vaso-occlusive crises (VOC) among patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) are limited, especially if hydroxyurea treatment has failed or is contraindicated. A systematic literature review (SLR) and network meta-analysis (NMA) were conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of crizanlizumab for older adolescent and adult (≥16 years old) SCD patients. METHODS The SLR included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and uncontrolled studies. Bayesian NMA of VOC, all-cause hospitalisation days and adverse events were conducted. RESULTS The SLR identified 51 studies and 9 RCTs on 14 treatments that met the NMA inclusion criteria. The NMA found that crizanlizumab 5.0 mg/kg was associated with a reduction in VOC (HR 0.55, 95% credible interval (0.43, 0.69); Bayesian probability of superiority >0.99), all-cause hospitalisation days (0.58 (0.50, 0.68); >0.99) and no evidence of difference on adverse events (0.91 (0.59, 1.43) 0.66) or serious adverse events (0.93 (0.47, 1.87); 0.59) compared with placebo. The HR for reduction in VOC for crizanlizumab relative to L-glutamine was (0.67 (0.50, 0.88); >0.99). These results were sensitive to assumptions regarding whether patient age is an effect modifier. CONCLUSIONS This NMA provides preliminary evidence comparing the efficacy of crizanlizumab with other treatments for VOC prevention.
Reduction of Blood Loss by Intra-articular Injection of Tranexamic Acid Combined with Knee and Hip Flexion at 45° During Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Orthopaedic surgery. 2020
OBJECTIVE To explore the hemostatic effect of intra-articular administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) combined with knee flexion in total knee arthroplasty (TKA). METHODS This randomized controlled trial was conducted at the Third Affiliated Hospital of Southern Medical University (Guangzhou, China) from January 2017 to February 2018. The patients were randomized 1:1 to the TXA group (TXA 500 mg into the joint after closure, knee, and hip flexed at 45° for 4 h) or the control group (physiological saline, with limb fully extended). The primary endpoint was postoperative hemoglobin reduction. The postoperative levels of hemoglobin were measured at four time points: 6 h after operation, and on the first, second, and third postoperative days. Calculated blood loss (CBL) at 3 days, transfusion rate, range of motion (ROM), VAS pain score, and knee circumference increment were the secondary endpoints. Ninety-four (47/group) patients were analyzed. RESULTS Postoperatively, there were statistically significant differences between the TXA and control groups in CBL (791 ± 212 mL vs 1175 ± 273 mL, P < 0.05). Hemoglobin reduction was significantly lower in the TXA group (2.0 ± 0.9 g/dL vs 4.5 ± 0.7 g/dL, P < 0.05). Based on the transfusion criteria, 3 out of 47 (6.4%) patients in the TXA group and 13 out of 47 (27.6%) patients in the control group received blood transfusions (P = 0.006). ROM (90.8° ± 6.2° vs 87.6° ± 6.4°, P = 0.004), VAS pain score (4.1 ± 1.1 vs 4.8 ± 1.3, P = 0.004), and KCI (2.4 ± 0.9 cm vs 3.2 ± 1.0 cm, P = 0.01) were better in the TXA group compared with thecontrols. There was no deep venous thrombosis (DVT), wound infection or other adverse events in either group. In the control group, 2 patients had a fever after blood transfusion. CONCLUSION Intra-articular injection of TXA combined with knee and hip flexion at 45° can effectively attenuate CBL and hemoglobin reduction during primary TKA, without an additional adverse event.
Fibrin sealants for the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreatic surgery
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020;3:Cd009621
BACKGROUND Postoperative pancreatic fistula is one of the most frequent and potentially life-threatening complications following pancreatic resections. Fibrin sealants have been used in some centers to reduce postoperative pancreatic fistula. However, the use of fibrin sealants during pancreatic surgery is controversial. This is an update of a Cochrane Review last published in 2018. OBJECTIVES To assess the safety, effectiveness, and potential adverse effects of fibrin sealants for the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula following pancreatic surgery. SEARCH METHODS We searched trial registers and the following biomedical databases: the Cochrane Library (2019, Issue 2), MEDLINE (1946 to 13 March2019), Embase (1980 to 11 March 2019), Science Citation Index Expanded (1900 to 13 March 2019), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM) (1978 to 13 March 2019). SELECTION CRITERIA We included all randomised controlled trials that compared fibrin sealant (fibrin glue or fibrin sealant patch) versus control (no fibrin sealant or placebo) in people undergoing pancreatic surgery. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently identified the trials for inclusion, collected the data, and assessed the risk of bias. We performed the meta-analyses using Review Manager 5. We calculated the risk ratio (RR) for dichotomous outcomes (or a Peto odds ratio (OR) for very rare outcomes), and the mean difference (MD) for continuous outcomes, with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). MAIN RESULTS We included 12 studies involving 1604 participants in the review. Application of fibrin sealants to pancreatic stump closure reinforcement after distal pancreatectomy We included seven studies involving 860 participants: 428 were randomised to the fibrin sealant group and 432 to the control group after distal pancreatectomy. Fibrin sealants may lead to little or no difference in postoperative pancreatic fistula (fibrin sealant 19.3%; control 20.1%; RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.35; 755 participants; four studies; low-quality evidence). Fibrin sealants may also lead to little or no difference in postoperative mortality (0.3% versus 0.5%; Peto OR 0.52, 95% CI 0.05 to 5.03; 804 participants; six studies; low-quality evidence), or overall postoperative morbidity (28.5% versus 23.2%; RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.58; 646 participants; three studies; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce reoperation rate (2.0% versus 3.8%; RR 0.51, 95% CI 0.15 to 1.71; 376 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence) or length of hospital stay (MD 0.99 days, 95% CI -1.83 to 3.82; 371 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence). The studies did not report serious adverse events, quality of life, or cost effectiveness. Application of fibrin sealants to pancreatic anastomosis reinforcement after pancreaticoduodenectomy We included four studies involving 393 participants: 186 were randomised to the fibrin sealant group and 207 to the control group after pancreaticoduodenectomy. We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce postoperative pancreatic fistula (16.7% versus 11.7%; RR 1.14, 95% CI 0.28 to 4.69; 199 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce postoperative mortality (0.5% versus 2.4%; Peto OR 0.26, 95% CI 0.05 to 1.32; 393 participants; four studies; low-quality evidence) or length of hospital stay (MD 0.01 days, 95% CI -3.91 to 3.94; 323 participants; three studies; very low-quality evidence). There is probably little or no difference in overall postoperative morbidity (52.6% versus 50.3%; RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.87 to 1.24; 323 participants; three studies; moderate-quality evidence) between the groups. We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce reoperation rate (5.2% versus 7.7%; RR 0.74, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.66; 323 participants; three studies, very low-quality evidence). The studies did not report serious adverse events, quality of life, or cost effectiveness. Application of fibrin sealants to pancreatic duct occlusion after pancreaticoduodenectomy We included two studies involving 351 participants: 188 were randomised to the fibrin sealant group and 163 to the control group after pancreaticoduodenectomy. Fibrin sealants may lead to little or no difference in postoperative mortality (8.4% versus 6.1%; Peto OR 1.41, 95% CI 0.63 to 3.13; 351 participants; two studies; low-quality evidence) or length of hospital stay (median 16 to 17 days versus 17 days; 351 participants; two studies; low-quality evidence). We are uncertain whether fibrin sealants reduce overall postoperative morbidity (32.0% versus 27.6%; RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.67 to 2.02; 351 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence), or reoperation rate (13.6% versus 16.0%; RR 0.85, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.41; 351 participants; two studies; very low-quality evidence). Serious adverse events were reported in one study (169 participants; low-quality evidence): more participants developed diabetes mellitus when fibrin sealants were applied to pancreatic duct occlusion, both at three months' follow-up (33.7% fibrin sealant group versus 10.8% control group; 29 participants versus 9 participants) and 12 months' follow-up (33.7% fibrin sealant group versus 14.5% control group; 29 participants versus 12 participants). The studies did not report postoperative pancreatic fistula, quality of life, or cost effectiveness. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Based on the current available evidence, fibrin sealants may have little or no effect on postoperative pancreatic fistula in people undergoing distal pancreatectomy. The effects of fibrin sealants on the prevention of postoperative pancreatic fistula are uncertain in people undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy.