Clinical efficacy and safety of neuroendoscopic surgery for severe thalamic hemorrhage with ventricle encroachment
Neurosurgical review. 2022
To summarize and analyze the clinical efficacy and safety of neuroendoscopic surgery (NES) in the treatment of patients for severe thalamic hemorrhage with ventricle encroachment (THVE). Eighty-three patients with severe THVE were treated in the Neurosurgery Department of Anqing Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University from July 2019 to August 2021. Our study was approved by the ethics committee. The patients were randomly divided into NES group and extraventricular drainage (EVD) group. The hospital stay, Glasgow coma scale (GCS) scores on the 1st and 14th days postoperatively, the incidence of intracranial infections, and the clearance of postoperative hematomas were compared and analyzed between the two groups. The patients had follow-up evaluations 6 months postoperatively. The prognosis was evaluated based on the activity of daily living (ADL) score. A head CT or MRI was obtained to determine whether there was hydrocephalus, cerebral infarction, or other related complications. Eighty-three patients were randomly divided into 41 cases of NES group and 42 cases of EVD group. The length of postoperative hospital stay was 17.42 ± 1.53 days, the GCS scores were 6.56 ± 0.21, and 10.83 ± 0.36 on days 1 and 14, respectively; intracranial infections occurred in 3 patients (7.31%) and the hematoma clearance rate was 83.6 ± 5.18% in the NES group, all of which were significantly better than the EVD group (P < 0.05). After 6 months of follow-up, 28 patients (68.29%) had a good prognosis, 5 patients (12.19%) died, and 4 patients (9.75%) had hydrocephalus in the NES group. In the EVD group, the prognosis was good in 15 patients (35.71%), 12 patients (28.57%) died, and 17 patients (40.47%) had hydrocephalus. The prognosis, mortality rate, and incidence of hydrocephalus in the NES group were significantly better than the EVD group (P < 0.05). Compared to traditional EVD, NES for severe THVE had a higher hematoma clearance rate, and fewer intracranial infections and patients with hydrocephalus, which together improve the clinical prognosis and is thus recommended for clinical use.
Comparative efficacy of 19 drug therapies for patients with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura: a multiple-treatments network meta-analysis
Annals of hematology. 2022
Immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) is the most common clinical bleeding disorder with a high mortality rate and poor long-term survival quality in severe patients. There is controversy on how to choose the appropriate treatment. We systematically reviewed 19 randomized controlled trials (including 2615 participants) from January 1, 2015, to April 20, 2021. These investigations compared multiple drugs or their combinations in the therapeutic dose range for the treatment of ITP. The primary endpoint was based on the proportion of patients who responded to these therapies. The efficacy of eltrombopag plus rituximab, avatrombopag, dexamethasone plus anti-HP, and dexamethasone plus rhTPO was significantly higher than placebo (OR: 46.66, 29.44, 2.66, 1.86) or dexamethasone alone (OR: 46.22, 29.01, 2.22, 1.40). Placebo, oral immunosuppressants, and dexamethasone plus oseltamivir were less effective than the other ITP therapies tested. Eltrombopag plus rituximab may be the best choice when starting treatment for ITP.
A multicenter, randomized phase III trial of hetrombopag: a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist for the treatment of immune thrombocytopenia
Journal of hematology & oncology. 2021;14(1):37
BACKGROUND Hetrombopag, a novel thrombopoietin receptor agonist, has been found in phase I studies to increase platelet counts and reduce bleeding risks in adults with immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). This phase III study aimed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of hetrombopag in ITP patients. METHODS Patients who had not responded to or had relapsed after previous treatment were treated with an initial dosage of once-daily 2.5 or 5 mg hetrombopag (defined as the HETROM-2.5 or HETROM-5 group) or with matching placebo in a randomized, double-blind, 10-week treatment period. Patients who received placebo and completed 10 weeks of treatment switched to receive eltrombopag, and patients treated with hetrombopag in the double-blind period continued hetrombopag during the following open-label 14-week treatment. The primary endpoint was the proportion of responders (defined as those achieving a platelet count of ≥ 50 × 10(9)/L) after 8 weeks of treatment. RESULTS The primary endpoint was achieved by significantly more patients in the HETROM-2.5 (58.9%; odds ratio [OR] 25.97, 95% confidence interval [CI] 9.83-68.63; p < 0.0001) and HETROM-5 (64.3%; OR 32.81, 95% CI 12.39-86.87; p < 0.0001) group than in the Placebo group (5.9%). Hetrombopag was also superior to placebo in achieving a platelet response and in reducing the bleeding risk and use of rescue therapy throughout 8 weeks of treatment. The durable platelet response to hetrombopag was maintained throughout 24 weeks. The most common adverse events were upper respiratory tract infection (42.2%), urinary tract infection (17.1%), immune thrombocytopenic purpura (17.1%) and hematuria (15%) with 24-week hetrombopag treatment. CONCLUSIONS In ITP patients, hetrombopag is efficacious and well tolerated with a manageable safety profile. Trial registration Clinical trials.gov NCT03222843 , registered July 19, 2017, retrospectively registered.
Outcomes of platelet-rich plasma for plantar fasciopathy: a best-evidence synthesis
Journal of orthopaedic surgery and research. 2020;15(1):432
BACKGROUND Plantar fasciopathy (PF) is a very common disease, affecting about 1/10 people in their lifetime. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) had been demonstrated to be useful in achieving helpful effects for plantar fasciopathy. The purpose of this study was to compare the pain and functional outcomes between PRP and corticosteroid (CS) or placebo for plantar fasciopathy through meta-analysis and provide the best evidence. METHODS Literature was searched systematically to explore related studies that were published in Cochrane Library, PubMed, Embase, Medline, SpringerLink, OVID, and ClinicalTrials.gov . Articles regarding comparative research about the outcomes of PRP therapy and CS or placebo injection were selected. Data of pain and functional outcomes was extracted and imported into Reviewer Manager 5.3 to analyze. RESULTS Thirteen RCTs were included and analyzed. Analysis results showed significant superiority of PRP in outcome scores when compared with CS (VAS: MD = - 0.85, P < 0.0001, I(2) = 85%; AOFAS MD = 10.05, P < 0.0001, I(2) = 85%), whereas there is no statistical difference in well-designed double-blind trials (VAS: MD = 0.15, P = 0.72, I(2) = 1%; AOFAS MD = 2.71, P = 0.17, I(2) = 0%). In the comparison of the PRP and the placebo, the pooled mean difference was - 3.76 (P < 0.0001, 95% CI = - 4.34 to - 3.18). CONCLUSIONS No superiority of PRP had been found in well-designed double-blind studies, whereas it is implied that the outcomes of PRP are better than placebo based on available evidence.
Combined use of tranexamic acid and rivaroxaban in posterior lumbar interbody fusion safely reduces blood loss and transfusion rates without increasing the risk of thrombosis-a prospective, stratified, randomized, controlled trial
Int Orthop. 2020
PURPOSE This prospective, stratified, randomized, single-blind, placebo-controlled multicentre study investigated the safety and effectiveness of reducing blood loss and preventing venous thromboembolism (VTE) during posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) in patients with stenosis or spondylolisthesis using the combination of tranexamic acid (TXA) and rivaroxaban. METHODS The Autar score was evaluated in patients after admission. Patients with an Autar score ≤ 10 were randomized to group A or B. Group A was the placebo-controlled group. Patients in group B were treated with 1 g TXA via intravenous injection and 1 g TXA for external use. Patients with an Autar score > 10 were randomized to group C or D. Patients in group C were treated with 10-mg rivaroxaban qd for 35 days after surgery. Patients in group D received the same treatment as those in group B intra-operatively and as those in group C post-operatively. RESULTS A total of 599 patients from eight hospitals participated in this clinical trial. The total blood loss, intra-operative blood loss, and drainage volume were reduced by the administration of TXA (group A vs group B, P < 0.01; group C vs group D, P < 0.01), and the blood transfusion rate was also decreased (group A vs group B, P < 0.01; group C vs group D, P < 0.01). There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in the VTE incidence rates among group A and group B. In patients with high-risk thrombosis, the number of patients with VTE was only three and seven after the application of rivaroxaban. Epidural haematoma was not discovered in any patients in our trial. CONCLUSION The combined application of tranexamic acid and rivaroxaban significantly reduced the amount of blood loss and the transfusion rate during PLIF surgery and avoided an increase in the probability of thrombosis and the occurrence of epidural haematoma. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER AND DATE OF REGISTRATION ChiCTR-1800016430 2018-06-01.
Sealing the Intramedullary Femoral Canal for Blood Loss in Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials
The journal of knee surgery. 2019
Blood loss after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a potentially serious medical problem since it leads to anemia, increased need for transfusion, and prolonged hospitalization. Some studies have reported that sealing of the intramedullary femoral canal during TKA may decrease postoperative blood loss. The purpose of this study is to determine the effects of sealing of the intramedullary femoral canal during TKA on blood loss and transfusion rate. Electronic databases, PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and Chinese Biomedical Database, were systematically searched. Only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared the sealing group with the control group during TKA were included up to March 2019. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed the quality of included studies. The statistical analysis was performed by using Review Manager 5.3 software. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool was used for quality assessment. Overall, eight RCTs involving 996 patients met our criteria and were analyzed. The results of meta-analysis showed that patients in the sealed group had less total blood loss, less total drain output and less hidden blood loss, less transfusion rates, a lower drop of hemoglobin level at day 1 postoperatively, and less hematoma than the control group. On the other hand, there were no significant differences in infection, deep vein thrombosis, and redness of incision between sealed and control group. Current meta-analysis found that sealing the femoral canal during TKA was an effective method for the control of blood loss.
The safety and efficiency of intravenous administration of tranexamic acid in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): a meta-analysis of 28 randomized controlled trials
BMC anesthesiology. 2019;19(1):104
BACKGROUND The safety and efficiency of intravenous administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) remains unconfirmed. Therefore, we conducted a meta-analysis on this topic. METHODS We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), PUBMED and EMBASE for randomized controlled trials on the topic. The results of this work are synthetized and reported in accordance with the PRISMA statement. RESULTS Twenty-eight studies met our inclusion criteria. TXA reduced the incidence of postoperative reoperation of bleeding (relative risk [RR], 0.46; 95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.31-0.68), the frequency of any allogeneic transfusion (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.52-0.78) and the postoperative chest tube drainage in the first 24 h by 206 ml (95% CI - 248.23 to - 164.15). TXA did not significantly affect the incidence of postoperative cerebrovascular accident (RR, 0.93; 95%CI, 0.62-1.39), mortality (RR, 0.82; 95%CI, 0.53-1.28), myocardial infarction (RR, 0.90; 95%CI, 0.78-1.05), acute renal insufficiency (RR, 1.01; 95%CI, 0.77-1.32). However, it may increase the incidence of postoperative seizures (RR, 6.67; 95%CI, 1.77-25.20). Moreover, the subgroup analyses in on-pump and off-pump CABG, the sensitivity analyses in trials randomized more than 99 participants and sensitivity analyses that excluded the study with the largest number of participants further strengthened the above results. CONCLUSIONS TXA is effective to reduce reoperation for bleeding, blood loss and the need for allogeneic blood products in patients undergoing CABG without increasing prothrombotic complication. However, it may increase the risk of postoperative seizures.
Motherwort injection in preventing post-abortion hemorrhage after induced abortion: A multi-center, prospective, randomized controlled trial
Explore (New York, N.Y.). 2019
OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of motherwort injection (MI, Yi mu cao) in preventing post-abortion hemorrhage and promoting uterine retraction after induced abortion surgery. METHODS In this multi-center randomized controlled trial undertaken between September 2014 and August 2016, 408 child-bearing age women who underwent induced abortion surgery and randomly assigned to two groups: MI group who received intramuscular MI treatment (n=207) and no-treatment group (n=201). The volume of vaginal bleeding and its duration were used as primary end points; and uterine size and dimension were measured as secondary end points. Blood coagulation indices, routine blood and adverse events were recorded to evaluate the safety. RESULTS The efficacy analysis was based on 366 patients. No significant difference were found in baseline characteristics between the two groups (P > 0.05). The amount of vaginal bleeding and duration of bleeding were significantly reduced in MI group compared with on-treatment group in Full Analysis Set (FAS) and Per Protocol Set (PPS) populations (P < 0.001). The volume and perimeter of the uterine dimensions in MI group were smaller than no-treatment group (P < 0.001). No significant abnormal vital signs were observed. Only 1 case of mild, transient erythema was found in MI group. CONCLUSIONS MI could reduce post-abortion hemorrhage and improve uterine retraction in women undergoing surgical induced abortion, without serious adverse events. It was a safe and effective treatment in preventing post-abortion hemorrhage after induced abortion.
Effect of allogeneic blood transfusion on levels of IL-6 and sIL-R2 in peripheral blood of children with acute lymphocytic leukemia
Oncology Letters. 2018;16((1)):849-852.
Effect of allogeneic blood transfusion on the expression of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and soluble interleukin-2 receptor (sIL-2R) in peripheral blood of children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) was investigated. A total of 91 ALL children admitted to Nanfang Hospital from June 2014 to January 2017 were selected as the study group. Patients were randomly divided into allogeneic blood transfusion group (n=38) and non-transfusion group (n=53). In addition, a total of 64 healthy children were also selected from June 2014 to January 2017 as the control group. Patients in allogeneic blood transfusion group were transfused with red blood cell suspension and machine-collected platelets, while patients in non-transfusion group were not treated with blood transfusion. Peripheral venous blood was collected before and at 4, 8 and 12 weeks after blood transfusion to prepare serum. Serum IL-6 and sIL-2R levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Before transfusion, serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were significantly lower in the study group than those in control group (p<0.05), and no significant differences in serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were found between the allogeneic blood transfusion and non-transfusion group. After transfusion, serum levels of IL-6 and sIL-2R were stable for 12 weeks in the non-transfusion group, while IL-6 and sIL-2R levels were significantly increased in the allogeneic blood transfusion group. The results showed that serum level of IL-6 and sIL-2R was increased in ALL patients with allogeneic blood transfusion, which resulted in reduced antibody production and decreased cellular immunity. The patients had low immunity, and attention should be paid on the pathogen infection prevention.
Efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists in children with chronic immune thrombocytopenia: a meta-analysis
Background and Aim: Thrombopoietin receptor agonists (TPO-RAs) have been shown to be safe and effective for adults with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP). The aim of this meta-analysis is to assess the efficacy and safety of thrombopoietin receptor agonists for children with chronic ITP. Materials and Methods: Clinical randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating the efficacy and safety of TPO-RAs in pediatric ITP patients published up to June 2017 were retrieved from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Embase databases. Relevant data were extracted, and the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale was used to assess the methodological quality. Stata/SE 12.0 was used to perform a meta-analysis. Results: Seven RCTs were included, with 238 patients and 107 patients in the TPO-RA group and the control group, respectively. Assessing efficacy, better results were found in the TPO-RA group for the rate of overall platelet response, durable response, and rescue medication needed. Furthermore, the TPO-RA group yielded superior results in the incidence of clinically significant bleeding events but had a comparable result in the incidence of any bleeding events and severe bleeding events. No significant difference was found between the two groups in health-related quality of life and parental burden. Assessing safety, no significant difference was found between the two groups in the incidence of any adverse events and severe adverse events. Conclusions: TPO-RAs are effective and safe agents for the treatment of chronic ITP in pediatric patients. Eltrombopag appears to be better than romiplostim in terms of the rate of rescue medication needed and clinically significant bleeding events.