Effect of recombinant Factor VIIa on outcome of acute variceal bleeding: an individual patient based meta-analysis of two controlled trials
Journal of Hepatology. 2014;61((2)):252-9.
BACKGROUND & AIMS Two randomized controlled studies have evaluated the effect of recombinant Factor VIIa (rFVIIa) on variceal bleeding in cirrhosis without showing significant benefit. The aim of the present study was to perform a meta-analysis of the two trials on individual patient data with special focus on high risk patients. METHODS The primary outcome measure was the effect of rFVIIa on a composite five day endpoint: failure to control bleeding, 5-day rebleeding or death. Analysis was based on intention to treat. High risk was defined as active bleeding on endoscopy while under vasoactive drug infusion and Child-Pugh score >8. RESULTS 497 patients were eligible for the meta-analysis; 308 (62%) had active variceal bleeding at endoscopy (oozing or spurting) and 283 of these had a Child-Pugh score >8. Analysis on the composite endpoint in all patients with bleeding from oesophageal varices did not show any beneficial treatment effect. However, failure rate for the primary composite end-point was significantly lower in treated patients with active bleeding at endoscopy (17%) compared to placebo (26%, p=0.049). This difference was highly significant in patients with Child-Pugh score >8 and active bleeding at endoscopy (rFVIIa 16%, placebo 27%; p=0.023). No significant treatment effect was found at 42 days. Five thromboembolic events occurred in rFVIIa treated patients compared to none in placebo treated patients. CONCLUSIONS The current meta-analysis shows a beneficial effect of rFVIIa on the primary composite endpoint of control of acute bleeding, prevention of rebleeding day 1-5 and 5-day mortality in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active bleeding from oesophageal varices at endoscopy. A major drawback of the treatment is a potential increased risk of arterial thrombo-embolic events. This treatment might be considered in patients with lack of control of bleeding after standard treatment.Copyright © 2014 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. RN 0 (Recombinant Proteins). 0 (recombinant FVIIa). EC 3-4-21-21 (Factor VIIa).
Recombinant factor VIIa for variceal bleeding in patients with advanced cirrhosis: A randomized, controlled trial
Hepatology (Baltimore, Md.). 2008;47((5):):1604-14.
A beneficial effect of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in Child-Pugh class B and C patients with cirrhosis who have variceal bleeding has been suggested. This randomized controlled trial assessed the efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in patients with advanced cirrhosis and active variceal bleeding. At 31 hospitals in an emergency setting, 256 patients (Child-Pugh > 8; Child-Pugh B = 26%, C = 74%) were randomized equally to: placebo; 600 microg/kg rFVIIa (200 + 4x 100 microg/kg); or 300 microg/kg rFVIIa (200 + 100 microg/kg). Dosing was intravenous at 0, 2, 8, 14, and 20 hours after endoscopy, in addition to standard vasoactive, prophylactic antibiotic, and endoscopic treatment. The primary composite endpoint consisted of failure to control 24-hour bleeding, or failure to prevent rebleeding or death at day 5. Secondary endpoints included adverse events and 42-day mortality. Baseline characteristics were comparable between groups. Administration of rFVIIa had no significant effect on the composite endpoint compared with placebo (P = 0. 37). There was no significant difference in 5-day mortality between groups; however, 42-day mortality was significantly lower with 600 microg/kg rFVIIa compared with placebo (odds ratio 0. 31, 95% confidence interval = 0. 13-0. 74), and bleeding-related deaths were reduced from 12% (placebo) to 2% (600 microg/kg). A marked heterogeneity in the failure rate in all treatment groups was observed across participating centers. Adverse events, including overall thromboembolic events, were comparable between groups. CONCLUSION Treatment with rFVIIa had no significant effect on the primary composite endpoint compared with placebo. Therefore, decision on the use of this hemostatic agent in acute variceal bleeding should be carefully considered, because results of this study do not support the routine use of rFVIIa in this setting. Adverse events were comparable across groups.
Recombinant factor VIIa for upper gastrointestinal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: a randomized, double-blind trial
BACKGROUND & AIMS Upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) is a severe and frequent complication of cirrhosis. Recombinant coagulation factor VIIa (rFVIIa) has been shown to correct the prolonged prothrombin time in patients with cirrhosis and UGIB. This trial aimed to determine efficacy and safety of rFVIIa in cirrhotic patients with variceal and nonvariceal UGIB. METHODS A total of 245 cirrhotic patients (Child-Pugh < 13; Child-Pugh A = 20%, B = 52%, C = 28%) with UGIB (variceal = 66%, nonvariceal = 29%, bleeding source unknown = 5%) were randomized equally to receive 8 doses of 100 microg/kg rFVIIa or placebo in addition to pharmacologic and endoscopic treatment. The primary end point was a composite including: (1) failure to control UGIB within 24 hours after first dose, or (2) failure to prevent rebleeding between 24 hours and day 5, or (3) death within 5 days. RESULTS Baseline characteristics were similar between rFVIIa and placebo groups. rFVIIa showed no advantage over standard treatment in the whole trial population. Exploratory analyses, however, showed that rFVIIa significantly decreased the number of failures on the composite end point (P = 0. 03) and the 24-hour bleeding control end point (P = 0. 01) in the subgroup of Child-Pugh B and C variceal bleeders. There were no significant differences between rFVIIa and placebo groups in mortality (5- or 42-day) or incidence of adverse events including thromboembolic events. CONCLUSIONS Although no overall effect of rFVIIa was observed, exploratory analyses in Child-Pugh B and C cirrhotic patients indicated that administration of rFVIIa significantly decreased the proportion of patients who failed to control variceal bleeding. Dosing with rFVIIa appeared safe. Further studies are needed to verify these findings.
Randomized controlled trial of desmopressin plus terlipressin vs. terlipressin alone for the treatment of acute variceal hemorrhage in cirrhotic patients: a multicenter, double-blind study. New Italian Endoscopic Club
1-Deamino-8-D-arginine vasopressin (DDAVP, desmopressin), a synthetic analog of the antidiuretic hormone L-arginine vasopressin, improves hemostasis parameters in cirrhotic patients. Hence its use in combination with a vasoactive drug such as terlipressin might improve the performance of this drug in controlling variceal bleeding. The aim of this trial was to compare the efficacy of desmopressin plus terlipressin with that of terlipressin alone in controlling acute variceal hemorrhage. Cirrhotic patients with active variceal hemorrhage diagnosed endoscopically were randomized within 2 hr of admission to receive desmopressin plus terlipressin or placebo plus terlipressin. Terlipressin (2 mg, intravenous bolus) was given at time 0 and every 4 hr thereafter for 24 hr. Desmopressin (0.3 microgram/kg, intravenously) or placebo was given in saline solution over 30 min at time 0 and at 26 hr. Patients were monitored for 24 hr after cessation of treatment. Treatment failure was defined as recurrence of active bleeding during treatment or within the 24 hr after treatment. After enrolling 51 of the planned 84 patients, we carried out an interim analysis. Treatment failure occurred in 13 of 24 patients randomized to receive desmopressin plus terlipressin (54.2%) and in 6 of 22 patients randomized to receive terlipressin (27.3%) (p = 0.06, Fisher's exact test). The trial was interrupted at this stage because patients treated with the "new" therapy fared worse than those treated with the standard therapy, and the possibility of reversing this trend by completing the trial was deemed remote. The addition of desmopressin does not improve and may worsen the efficacy of terlipressin in controlling acute variceal bleeding in cirrhotic patients.