Immunoglobulin for multifocal motor neuropathy
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2022;1(1):Cd004429
BACKGROUND Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN) is a rare, probably immune-mediated disorder characterised by slowly progressive, asymmetric, distal weakness of one or more limbs with no objective loss of sensation. It may cause prolonged periods of disability. Treatment options for MMN are few. People with MMN do not usually respond to steroids or plasma exchange. Uncontrolled studies have suggested a beneficial effect of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg). This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2005, with an amendment in 2007. We updated the review to incorporate new evidence. OBJECTIVES To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous and subcutaneous immunoglobulin in people with MMN. SEARCH METHODS We searched the following databases on 20 April 2021: the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, ClinicalTrials.gov, and WHO ICTRP for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs, and checked the reference lists of included studies. SELECTION CRITERIA We considered RCTs and quasi-RCTs examining the effects of any dose of IVIg and subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) in people with definite or probable MMN for inclusion in the review. Eligible studies had to have measured at least one of the following outcomes: disability, muscle strength, or electrophysiological conduction block. We used studies that reported the frequency of adverse effects to assess safety. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors independently reviewed the literature searches to identify potentially relevant trials, assessed risk of bias of included studies, and extracted data. We followed standard Cochrane methodology. MAIN RESULTS Six cross-over RCTs including a total of 90 participants were suitable for inclusion in the review. Five RCTs compared IVIg to placebo, and one compared IVIg to SCIg. Four of the trials comparing IVIg versus placebo involved IVIg-naive participants (induction treatment). In the other two trials, participants were known IVIg responders receiving maintencance IVIg at baseline and were then randomised to maintenance treatment with IVIg or placebo in one trial, and IVIg or SCIg in the other. Risk of bias was variable in the included studies, with three studies at high risk of bias in at least one risk of bias domain. IVIg versus placebo (induction treatment): three RCTs including IVIg-naive participants reported a disability measure. Disability improved in seven out of 18 (39%) participants after IVIg treatment and in two out of 18 (11%) participants after placebo (risk ratio (RR) 3.00, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.89 to 10.12; 3 RCTs, 18 participants; low-certainty evidence). The proportion of participants with an improvement in disability at 12 months was not reported. Strength improved in 21 out of 27 (78%) IVIg-naive participants treated with IVIg and one out of 27 (4%) participants who received placebo (RR 11.00, 95% CI 2.86 to 42.25; 3 RCTs, 27 participants; low-certainty evidence). IVIg treatment may increase the proportion of people with resolution of at least one conduction block; however, the results were also consistent with no effect (RR 7.00, 95% CI 0.95 to 51.70; 4 RCTs, 28 participants; low-certainty evidence). IVIg versus placebo (maintenance treatment): a trial that included participants on maintenance IVIg treatment reported an increase in disability in 17 out of 42 (40%) people switching to placebo and seven out of 42 (17%) remaining on IVIg (RR 2.43, 95% CI 1.13 to 5.24; 1 RCT, 42 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) and a decrease in grip strength in 20 out of 42 (48%) participants after a switch to placebo treatment compared to four out of 42 (10%) remaining on IVIg (RR 0.20, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.54; 1 RCT, 42 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). Adverse events, IVIg versus placebo (induction or maintenance): four trials comparing IVIg and placebo reported adverse events, of which data from two studies could be meta-analysed. Transient side effects were reported in 71% of IVIg-treated participants versus 4.8% of placebo-treated participants in these studies. The pooled RR for the development of side effects was 10.33 (95% CI 2.15 to 49.77; 2 RCTs, 21 participants; very low-certainty evidence). There was only one serious side effect (pulmonary embolism) during IVIg treatment. IVIg versus SCIg (maintenance treatment): the trial that compared continuation of IVIg maintenance versus SCIg maintenance did not measure disability. The evidence was very uncertain for muscle strength (standardised mean difference 0.08, 95% CI -0.84 to 1.00; 1 RCT, 9 participants; very low-certainty evidence). The evidence was very uncertain for the number of people with side effects attributable to treatment (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.18 to 1.40; 1 RCT, 9 participants; very low-certainty evidence). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Low-certainty evidence from three small RCTs shows that IVIg may improve muscle strength in people with MMN, and low-certainty evidence indicates that it may improve disability; the estimate of the magnitude of improvement of disability has wide CIs and needs further studies to secure its significance. Based on moderate-certainty evidence, it is probable that most IVIg responders deteriorate in disability and muscle strength after IVIg withdrawal. SCIg might be an alternative treatment to IVIg, but the evidence is very uncertain. More research is needed to identify people in whom IVIg withdrawal is possible and to confirm efficacy of SCIg as an alternative maintenance treatment.
Analysis of Relapse by Inflammatory Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale Status in the PATH Study of Subcutaneous Immunoglobulin in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS. 2022
BACKGROUND AND AIMS Clinical trials in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) often assess efficacy using the ordinal Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) disability score. Here, data from the PATH study was reanalyzed using change in Inflammatory Rasch-built Overall Disability Scale (I-RODS) to define CIDP relapse instead of INCAT. METHODS The PATH study comprised an intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) dependency period and an IVIG (IgPro10 [Privigen®]) restabilization period; subjects were then randomized to weekly maintenance subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG; IgPro20 [Hizentra®]) 0.2 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg or placebo for 24 weeks. CIDP relapse was defined as ≥1-point deterioration in adjusted INCAT, with a primary endpoint of relapse or withdrawal rates. This retrospective exploratory analysis redefined relapse using I-RODS via three different cut-off methods: an individual variability method, fixed cut-off of ≥8-point deterioration on I-RODS centile score or ≥4-point deterioration on I-RODS raw score. RESULTS Relapse or withdrawal rates were 47% for placebo, 34% for 0.2 g/kg IgPro20 and 19% for 0.4 g/kg IgPro20 using the raw score; 40%, 28% and 15%, respectively using the centile score, and 49%, 40% and 27%, respectively using the individual variability method. INTERPRETATION IgPro20 was shown to be efficacious as a maintenance therapy for CIDP when relapse was defined using I-RODS. A stable response pattern was shown for I-RODS across various applied cut-offs, indicating that any could be used in future clinical trials.
Withdrawal of intravenous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy
Brain : a journal of neurology. 2022
Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are an efficacious treatment for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP). Biomarkers for disease activity are lacking, making the need for ongoing treatment difficult to assess, leading to potential overtreatment, and high health care costs. Our objective was to determine whether IVIg withdrawal is non-inferior to continuing IVIg treatment and to determine how often patients are overtreated. We performed a randomized, double-blind, IVIg-controlled non-inferiority trial in seven centers in the Netherlands. Adults with clinically stable CIDP using IVIg maintenance treatment for at least 6 months were included. Patients received either IVIg withdrawal (placebo) as investigational treatment or continuation of IVIg treatment (control). The primary outcome was the mean change in logit scores from baseline to 24-weeks follow-up on the patient-reported Inflammatory Rasch-Overall Disability Scale (iRODS). The non-inferiority margin was predefined as between-group difference in mean change scores of -0.65. Patients who deteriorated could reach a relapse endpoint according to predefined criteria. Patients with a relapse endpoint after IVIg withdrawal entered a restabilization phase. All patients from the withdrawal group who remained stable, were included in an open-label extension phase of 52 weeks. We included 60 patients of whom 29 were randomised to IVIg withdrawal and 31 to continuation of treatment. The mean age was 58 years (SD 14.7) and 67% was male. The between-group difference in mean change iRODS scores was -0.47 (95%CI -1.24 to 0.31), indicating that non-inferiority of IVIg withdrawal could not be established. In the IVIg withdrawal group, 41% remained stable for 24 weeks, compared to 58% in the IVIg continuation group (-17%; 95%CI -39 to 8). Of the IVIg withdrawal group, 28% remained stable at end of the extension phase. Of the patients in the restabilization phase, 94% restabilized within 12 weeks. In conclusion, it remains inconclusive whether IVIg withdrawal is non-inferior compared to continuing treatment, partly due to larger than expected confidence intervals leading to an underpowered study. Despite these limitations, a considerable proportion of patients could stop treatment and almost all patients who relapsed were restabilized quickly. Unexpectedly, a high proportion of IVIg treated patients experienced a relapse endpoint, emphasizing the need for more objective measures for disease activity in future trials, as the patient reported outcome measures might not have been able to identify true relapses reliably. Overall, this study suggests that withdrawal attempts are safe and should be performed regularly in clinically stable patients.
Pharmacometric Analysis Linking Immunoglobulin Exposure to Clinical Efficacy Outcomes in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy
CPT: pharmacometrics & systems pharmacology. 2021
The two main objectives of this analysis were to (i) characterise the relationship between immunoglobulin (Ig) exposure and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) disease severity using data from 171 patients with CIDP who received either subcutaneous Ig (IgPro20; Hizentra®) or placebo (PATH study), and to (ii) simulate and compare exposure coverage with various dosing approaches considering weekly dosing to be the reference dose. IgG PK parameters including those from a previous population PK model were used to predict individual IgG profile and exposure metrics. Treatment-related changes in inflammatory neuropathy cause and treatment (INCAT) scores were best described by an E(max) model as a function of ΔIgG (total serum IgG at INCAT score assessment minus baseline IgG levels before intravenous Ig restabilisation). Simulations indicate that flexible dosing from daily to biweekly (every other week) provide an exposure coverage equivalent to that of a weekly Ig dose.
Placebo Effect in Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy: The PATH study and a systematic review
J Peripher Nerv Syst. 2020
Background and Aims The PATH study required subjects with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) to show dependency on immunoglobulin G (IgG) and then be restabilized on IgG before being randomized to placebo or one of two doses of subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG). Nineteen of the 51 subjects (37%) randomized to placebo did not relapse over the next 24 weeks. This article explores the reasons for this effect. A post-hoc analysis of the PATH placebo group was undertaken. A literature search identified other placebo controlled CIDP trials for review and comparison. In PATH, subjects randomized to placebo who did not relapse were significantly older, had more severe disease, and took longer to deteriorate in the IgG dependency period compared with those who relapsed. Published trials in CIDP, whose primary endpoint was stability or deterioration, had a mean non-deterioration (placebo effect) of 43%, while trials with a primary endpoint of improvement had a placebo response of only 11%. Interpretation Placebo is an important variable in the design of CIDP trials. Trials designed to show clinical improvement will have a significantly lower effect of this phenomenon than those designed to show stability or deterioration. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Efficacy and safety of IVIG in CIDP: combined data of the PRIMA and PATH studies
Journal of the peripheral nervous system : JPNS. 2019
INTRODUCTION Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is a potential therapy for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). METHODS To investigate the efficacy and safety of the IVIG IgPro10 (Privigen(R)) for treatment of CIDP, results from PRIMA, a prospective, open-label, single-arm study of IVIG in Ig-naive or IVIG-pretreated subjects (NCT01184846, n=28) and PATH, a double-blind, randomized study including an open-label, single-arm IVIG phase in IVIG-pretreated subjects (NCT01545076 IVIG restabilization phase, n=207) were analyzed separately and together (n=235). Efficacy assessments included change in adjusted Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) score, grip strength and Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score. Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) and ADRs/infusion were recorded. RESULTS Adjusted INCAT response rate was 60.7% in all PRIMA subjects at Week 25 (76.9% in IVIG-pre-treated subjects) and 72.9% in PATH. In the pooled cohort (n = 235), INCAT response rate was 71.9%, median time to INCAT improvement was 4.3 weeks. No clear demographic differences were noticed between early (responding before Week 7, n = 148) and late responders (n = 21). In the pooled cohort median change from baseline to last observation was -1.0 (IQR -2.0; 0.0) points for INCAT score; +8.0 (0.0; 20.0) kPa for maximum grip strength; +3.0 (1.0; 7.0) points for MRC sum score. In the pooled cohort, 271 adverse drug reactions (ADRs) were reported in 105 subjects (44.7%), a rate of 0.144 ADRs per infusion. CONCLUSIONS This analysis confirms the efficacy and safety of IgPro10, a recently FDA-approved IVIG for CIDP, in a population of mainly pre-treated subjects with CIDP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Patient-reported outcomes with subcutaneous immunoglobulin in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: the PATH Study
European journal of neurology. 2019
BACKGROUND Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) causes weakness which adversely impacts function and quality of life (QOL). CIDP often requires long-term management with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin. The Polyneuropathy and Treatment with Hizentra((R)) (PATH) study showed subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) was efficacious in CIDP maintenance. Here, we assess patient-reported outcomes in patients on SCIG. METHODS Subjects stabilised on IVIG were randomly allocated to receive weekly 0.2 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg bodyweight of 20% SCIG (IgPro20) or placebo. Overall QOL/health status was assessed using the EuroQoL 5-Dimension Questionnaire (EQ-5D) health profile and visual analog scale (VAS), treatment satisfaction with the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medicine (TSQM), and work-related impact with the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment Questionnaire for General Health (WPAI-GH). EQ-5D health profile was assessed in terms of the percentage of subjects maintained or improved at Week 25 of SCIG therapy on each of the EQ-5D domains versus baseline after IVIG stabilisation. TSQM and WPAI-GH were assessed by median score changes from baseline to Week 25. RESULTS 172 subjects were randomised to placebo (n=57), 0.2 g/kg IgPro20 (n=57) and 0.4 g/kg IgPro20 (n=58). Significantly higher proportions of IgPro20-treated subjects improved/maintained their health status on the EQ-5D usual activities dimension, and in additional dimensions (mobility and pain/discomfort) in sensitivity analyses. TSQM and WPAI-GH scores were more stable with IgPro20 treatment compared with placebo. CONCLUSIONS IgPro20 maintained, or improved, QOL in most subjects with CIDP, consistent with the PATH study findings that both IgPro20 doses were efficacious in maintaining CIDP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Treatments for chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP): an overview of systematic reviews
The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2017;((1)):CD010369.
BACKGROUND Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is a chronic progressive or relapsing and remitting disease that usually causes weakness and sensory loss. The symptoms are due to autoimmune inflammation of peripheral nerves. CIPD affects about 2 to 3 per 100,000 of the population. More than half of affected people cannot walk unaided when symptoms are at their worst. CIDP usually responds to treatments that reduce inflammation, but there is disagreement about which treatment is most effective. OBJECTIVES To summarise the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews (CSRs) and non-Cochrane systematic reviews of any treatment for CIDP and to compare the effects of treatments. METHODS We considered all systematic reviews of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of any treatment for any form of CIDP. We reported their primary outcomes, giving priority to change in disability after 12 months.Two overview authors independently identified published systematic reviews for inclusion and collected data. We reported the quality of evidence using GRADE criteria. Two other review authors independently checked review selection, data extraction and quality assessments.On 31 October 2016, we searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, the Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (in theCochrane Library), MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL Plus for systematic reviews of CIDP. We supplemented the RCTs in the existing CSRs by searching on the same date for RCTs of any treatment of CIDP (including treatment of fatigue or pain in CIDP), in the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL Plus. MAIN RESULTS Five CSRs met our inclusion criteria. We identified 23 randomised trials, of which 15 had been included in these CSRs. We were unable to compare treatments as originally planned, because outcomes and outcome intervals differed. CorticosteroidsIt is uncertain whether daily oral prednisone improved impairment compared to no treatment because the quality of the evidence was very low (1 trial, 28 participants). According to moderate-quality evidence (1 trial, 41 participants), six months' treatment with high-dose monthly oral dexamethasone did not improve disability more than daily oral prednisolone. Observational studies tell us that prolonged use of corticosteroids sometimes causes serious side-effects. Plasma exchangeAccording to moderate-quality evidence (2 trials, 59 participants), twice-weekly plasma exchange produced more short-term improvement in disability than sham exchange. In the largest observational study, 3.9% of plasma exchange procedures had complications. Intravenous immunoglobulinAccording to high-quality evidence (5 trials, 269 participants), intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) produced more short-term improvement than placebo. Adverse events were more common with IVIg than placebo (high-quality evidence), but serious adverse events were not (moderate-quality evidence, 3 trials, 315 participants). One trial with 19 participants provided moderate-quality evidence of little or no difference in short-term improvement of impairment with plasma exchange in comparison to IVIg. There was little or no difference in short-term improvement of disability with IVIg in comparison to oral prednisolone (moderate-quality evidence; 1 trial, 29 participants) or intravenous methylprednisolone (high-quality evidence; 1 trial, 45 participants). One unpublished randomised open trial with 35 participants found little or no difference in disability after three months of IVIg compared to oral prednisone; this trial has not yet been included in a CSR. We know from observational studies that serious adverse events related to IVIg do occur. Other immunomodulatory treatmentsIt is uncertain whether the addition of azathioprine (2 mg/kg) to prednisone improved impairment in comparison to prednisone alone, as the quality of the evidence is very low (1 trial, 27 participants). Observational studies show that adverse effects truncate treatment in 10% of people.According to low-
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin for maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (PATH): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial
The Lancet. Neurology. 2017;17((1):):35-46. 35
BACKGROUND Approximately two-thirds of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) need long-term intravenous immunoglobulin. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIg) is an alternative option for immunoglobulin delivery, but has not previously been investigated in a large trial of CIDP. The PATH study compared relapse rates in patients given SCIg versus placebo. METHODS Between March 12, 2012, and Sept 20, 2016, we studied patients from 69 neuromuscular centres in North America, Europe, Israel, Australia, and Japan. Adults with definite or probable CIDP who responded to intravenous immunoglobulin treatment were eligible. We randomly allocated participants to 0.2 g/kg or 0.4 g/kg of a 20% SCIg solution (IgPro20) weekly versus placebo (2% human albumin solution) for maintenance treatment for 24 weeks. We did randomisation in a 1:1:1 ratio with an interactive voice and web response system with a block size of six, stratified by region (Japan or non-Japan). The primary outcome was the proportion of patients with a CIDP relapse or who were withdrawn for any other reason during 24 weeks of treatment. Patients, caregivers, and study personnel, including those assessing outcomes, were masked to treatment assignment. Analyses were done in the intention-to-treat and per-protocol sets. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01545076. FINDINGS In this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, we randomly allocated 172 patients: 57 (33%) to the placebo group, 57 (33%) to the low-dose group, and 58 (34%) to the high-dose group. In the intention-to-treat set, 36 (63% [95% CI 50-74]) patients on placebo, 22 (39% [27-52]) on low-dose SCIg, and 19 (33% [22-46]) on high-dose SCIg had a relapse or were withdrawn from the study for other reasons (p=0.0007). Absolute risk reductions were 25% (95% CI 6-41) for low-dose versus placebo (p=0.007), 30% (12-46) for high-dose versus placebo (p=0.001), and 6% (-11 to 23) for high-dose versus low-dose (p=0.32). Causally related adverse events occurred in 47 (27%) patients (ten [18%] in the placebo group, 17 [30%] in the low-dose group, and 20 [34%] in the high-dose group). Six (3%) patients had 11 serious adverse events: one (2%) patient in the placebo group, three (5%) in the low-dose group, and two (3%) in the high-dose group; only one (an acute allergic skin reaction in the low-dose group) was assessed to be causally related. INTERPRETATION This study, which is to our knowledge, the largest trial of CIDP to date and the first to study two administrations of immunoglobulins and two doses, showed that both doses of SCIg IgPro20 were efficacious and well tolerated, suggesting that SCIg can be used as a maintenance treatment for CIDP. FUNDING CSL Behring.
Subcutaneous immunoglobulin for maintenance treatment in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy – A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial: The PATH Study
Muscle & Nerve. 2017;56 Suppl 1:S1-S16
INTRODUCTION Patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) often require long-term intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) maintenance therapy. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (SCIG) offers an alternative administration option with anticipated improvements in patient quality of life, convenience, and flexibility. OBJECTIVES To evaluate IgPro20 (SCIG) as a maintenance treatment in CIDP. METHODS A randomized, double-blind trial in CIDP patients (n=172) investigated 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg weekly doses of IgPro20 versus placebo. The primary outcome was percentage of patients with CIDP relapse/withdrawal during 24-weeks of treatment determined by Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment score. Secondary endpoints included grip strength and patient satisfaction. RESULTS Both IgPro20 doses significantly reduced rate of CIDP relapse/withdrawal versus placebo. Grip strength remained stable with Hizentra(R), but deteriorated with placebo. Most subjects preferred SCIG over IVIG. Local reactions, reported in 33% of IgPro20-treated patients, were mild or moderate in intensity. CONCLUSION IgPro20 is efficacious and well-tolerated as maintenance treatment in CIDP. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.