Erythropoietin plus iron versus control treatment including placebo or iron for preoperative anaemic adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery
The Cochrane database of systematic reviews. 2020;8:Cd012451
BACKGROUND Approximately 30% of adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery suffer from preoperative anaemia. Preoperative anaemia is a risk factor for mortality and adverse outcomes in different surgical specialties and is frequently the reason for blood transfusion. The most common causes are renal, chronic diseases, and iron deficiency. International guidelines recommend that the cause of anaemia guide preoperative anaemia treatment. Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) with iron supplementation has frequently been used to increase preoperative haemoglobin concentrations in patients in order to avoid the need for perioperative allogeneic red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. OBJECTIVES To evaluate the efficacy of preoperative rHuEPO therapy (subcutaneous or parenteral) with iron (enteral or parenteral) in reducing the need for allogeneic RBC transfusions in preoperatively anaemic adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. SEARCH METHODS We searched CENTRAL, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid Embase, ISI Web of Science: SCI-EXPANDED and CPCI-S, and clinical trial registries WHO ICTRP and ClinicalTrials.gov on 29 August 2019. SELECTION CRITERIA We included all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared preoperative rHuEPO + iron therapy to control treatment (placebo, no treatment, or standard of care with or without iron) for preoperatively anaemic adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery. We used the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of anaemia: haemoglobin concentration (g/dL) less than 13 g/dL for males, and 12 g/dL for non-pregnant females (decision of inclusion based on mean haemoglobin concentration). We defined two subgroups of rHuEPO dosage: 'low' for 150 to 300 international units (IU)/kg body weight, and 'high' for 500 to 600 IU/kg body weight. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS Two review authors collected data from the included studies. Our primary outcome was the need for RBC transfusion (no autologous transfusion, fresh frozen plasma or platelets), measured in transfused participants during surgery (intraoperative) and up to five days after surgery. Secondary outcomes of interest were: haemoglobin concentration (directly before surgery), number of RBC units (where one unit contains 250 to 450 mL) transfused per participant (intraoperative and up to five days after surgery), mortality (within 30 days after surgery), length of hospital stay, and adverse events (e.g. renal dysfunction, thromboembolism, hypertension, allergic reaction, headache, fever, constipation). MAIN RESULTS Most of the included trials were in orthopaedic, gastrointestinal, and gynaecological surgery and included participants with mild and moderate preoperative anaemia (haemoglobin from 10 to 12 g/dL). The duration of preoperative rHuEPO treatment varied across the trials, ranging from once a week to daily or a 5-to-10-day period, and in one trial preoperative rHuEPO was given on the morning of surgery and for five days postoperatively. We included 12 trials (participants = 1880) in the quantitative analysis of the need for RBC transfusion following preoperative treatment with rHuEPO + iron to correct preoperative anaemia in non-cardiac surgery; two studies were multiarmed trials with two different dose regimens. Preoperative rHuEPO + iron given to anaemic adults reduced the need RBC transfusion (risk ratio (RR) 0.55, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.38 to 0.80; participants = 1880; studies = 12; I(2) = 84%; moderate-quality evidence due to inconsistency). This analysis suggests that on average, the combined administration of rHuEPO + iron will mean 231 fewer individuals will need transfusion for every 1000 individuals compared to the control group. Preoperative high-dose rHuEPO + iron given to anaemic adults increased the haemoglobin concentration (mean difference (MD) 1.87 g/dL, 95% CI 1.26 to 2.49; participants = 852; studies = 3; I(2) = 89%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and risk of bias) but not low-dose rHuEPO + iron (MD 0.11 g/dL, 95% CI -0.46 to 0.69; participants = 334; studies = 4; I(2) = 69%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and risk of bias). There was probably little or no difference in the number of RBC units when rHuEPO + iron was given preoperatively (MD -0.09, 95% CI -0.23 to 0.05; participants = 1420; studies = 6; I(2) = 2%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision). There was probably little or no difference in the risk of mortality within 30 days of surgery (RR 1.19, 95% CI 0.39 to 3.63; participants = 230; studies = 2; I(2) = 0%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision) or of adverse events including local rash, fever, constipation, or transient hypertension (RR 0.93, 95% CI 0.68 to 1.28; participants = 1722; studies = 10; I(2) = 0%; moderate-quality evidence due to imprecision). The administration of rHuEPO + iron before non-cardiac surgery did not clearly reduce the length of hospital stay of preoperative anaemic adults (MD -1.07, 95% CI -4.12 to 1.98; participants = 293; studies = 3; I(2) = 87%; low-quality evidence due to inconsistency and imprecision). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS Moderate-quality evidence suggests that preoperative rHuEPO + iron therapy for anaemic adults prior to non-cardiac surgery reduces the need for RBC transfusion and, when given at higher doses, increases the haemoglobin concentration preoperatively. The administration of rHuEPO + iron treatment did not decrease the mean number of units of RBC transfused per patient. There were no important differences in the risk of adverse events or mortality within 30 days, nor in length of hospital stay. Further, well-designed, adequately powered RCTs are required to estimate the impact of this combined treatment more precisely.
Preoperatively anaemic adults undergoing non-cardiac surgery (12 trials, n= 1880).
Preoperative recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) (subcutaneous or parenteral) with iron (enteral or parenteral).
Control treatment (placebo, no treatment, or standard of care with or without iron).
Preoperative rHuEPO + iron given to anaemic adults reduced the need for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion. Preoperative high-dose rHuEPO + iron given to anaemic adults increased the haemoglobin concentration (mean difference (MD) 1.87 g/dL) but not low-dose rHuEPO + iron (MD 0.11 g/dL). There was probably little or no difference in the number of RBC units when rHuEPO + iron was given preoperatively (MD -0.09). There was probably little or no difference in the risk of mortality within 30 days of surgery or of adverse events including local rash, fever, constipation, or transient hypertension. The administration of rHuEPO + iron before non-cardiac surgery did not clearly reduce the length of hospital stay of preoperative anaemic adults (MD -1.07).
Why does a point of care guided transfusion algorithm not improve blood loss and transfusion practice in patients undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery? A prospective randomized controlled pilot study
BMC anesthesiology. 2019;19(1):24
BACKGROUND Adult cardiac surgery is often complicated by elevated blood losses that account for elevated transfusion requirements. Perioperative bleeding and transfusion of blood products are major risk factors for morbidity and mortality. Timely diagnostic and goal-directed therapies aim at the reduction of bleeding and need for allogeneic transfusions. METHODS Single-centre, prospective, randomized trial assessing blood loss and transfusion requirements of 26 adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery at high risk for perioperative bleeding. Primary endpoint was blood loss at 24 h postoperatively. Random assignment to intra- and postoperative haemostatic management following either an algorithm based on conventional coagulation assays (conventional group: platelet count, aPTT, PT, fibrinogen) or based on point-of-care (PoC-group) monitoring, i.e. activated rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM(R)) combined with multiple aggregometry (Multiplate(R)). Differences between groups were analysed using nonparametric tests for independent samples. RESULTS The study was terminated after interim analysis (n = 26). Chest tube drainage volume was 360 ml (IQR 229-599 ml) in the conventional group, and 380 ml (IQR 310-590 ml) in the PoC-group (p = 0.767) after 24 h. Basic patient characteristics, results of PoC coagulation assays, and transfusion requirements of red blood cells and fresh frozen plasma did not differ between groups. Coagulation results were comparable. Platelets were transfused in the PoC group only. CONCLUSION Blood loss via chest tube drainage and transfusion amounts were not different comparing PoC- and central lab-driven transfusion algorithms in subjects that underwent high-risk cardiac surgery. Routine PoC coagulation diagnostics do not seem to be beneficial when actual blood loss is low. High risk procedures might not suffice as a sole risk factor for increased blood loss. TRIAL REGISTRATION NCT01402739 , Date of registration July 26, 2011.
Safe application of a restrictive transfusion protocol in moderate-risk patients undergoing cardiac operations
Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2014;97((5):):1630-5.
BACKGROUND Perioperative red blood cell transfusion is associated with adverse outcomes after cardiac operations. Although restrictive transfusion protocols have been developed, their safety and efficacy are not well demonstrated, and considerable variation in transfusion practice persists. We report our experience with a restrictive transfusion protocol. METHODS We analyzed the outcomes in 409 patients undergoing cardiac operations enrolled in a trial conducted at 30 centers worldwide. Blood products were administered on the basis of a transfusion algorithm applied across all centers, with a restrictive transfusion trigger of hemoglobin less than or equal to 6 g/dL. Transfusion was acceptable but not mandatory for hemoglobin 6 to 8 g/dL. For hemoglobin 8 to 10 g/dL, transfusion was acceptable only with evidence for end-organ ischemia. RESULTS The patient population was moderately complex, with 20.5% having combined procedures and 29.6% having nonelective operations. The mean EuroSCORE for the population was 4.3, which predicted a substantial incidence of morbidity and mortality. Actual outcomes were excellent, with observed mortality of 0.49% and rates of cerebrovascular accident, myocardial infarction, and acute renal failure 1.2%, 6.1%, and 0.98%, respectively. The frequency of red blood cell transfusion was 33.7%, which varied significantly by center. Most transfusions (71.9%) were administered for hemoglobin 6 to 8 g/dL; 21.4% were administered for hemoglobin 8 to 10 g/dL with evidence for end-organ ischemia; 65.0% of patients avoided allogeneic transfusion altogether. CONCLUSIONS A restrictive transfusion protocol can be safely applied in the care of moderate-risk patients undergoing cardiac operations. This strategy has significant potential to reduce transfusion and resource utilization in these patients, standardize transfusion practices across institutions, and increase the safety of cardiac operations. Copyright 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Efficacy and safety of recombinant factor XIII on reducing blood transfusions in cardiac surgery: A randomized, placebo-controlled, multicenter clinical trial
Journal of Thoracic & Cardiovascular Surgery. 2013;146((4):):927-39.
OBJECTIVES Cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass frequently leads to excessive bleeding, obligating blood product transfusions. Because low factor XIII (FXIII) levels have been associated with bleeding after cardiac surgery, we investigated whether administering recombinant FXIII after cardiopulmonary bypass would reduce transfusions. METHODS In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial, 409 cardiac surgical patients at moderate risk for transfusion were randomized to receive an intravenous dose of recombinant FXIII, 17.5 IU/kg (n=143), 35 IU/kg (n=138), or placebo (n=128) after cardiopulmonary bypass. Transfusion guidelines were standardized. The primary efficacy outcome was avoidance of allogeneic blood products for 7 days postsurgery. Secondary outcomes included amount of blood products transfused and reoperation rate. Serious adverse events were measured for 7 weeks. RESULTS Study groups had comparable baseline characteristics and an approximately 40% decrease in FXIII levels after cardiopulmonary bypass. Thirty minutes postdose, FXIII levels were restored to higher than the lower 2.5th percentile of preoperative activity in 49% of the placebo group, and 85% and 95% of the 17.5- and 35-IU/kg recombinant FXIII groups, respectively (P<.05 for both treatments vs placebo). Transfusion avoidance rates were 64.8%, 64.3%, and 65.9% with placebo, 17.5 IU/kg, and 35 IU/kg recombinant FXIII (respective odds ratios against placebo, 1.05 [95% confidence interval, 0.61-1.80] and 0.99 [95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.72]). Groups had comparable adverse event rates. CONCLUSIONS Replenishment of FXIII levels after cardiopulmonary bypass had no effect on transfusion avoidance, transfusion requirements, or reoperation in moderate-risk cardiac surgery patients (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT00914589). Copyright 2013 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Safety and efficacy of recombinant activated factor VII: a randomized placebo-controlled trial in the setting of bleeding after cardiac surgery
BACKGROUND Blood loss is a common complication of cardiac surgery. Evidence suggests that recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) can decrease intractable bleeding in patients after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to investigate the safety and possible benefits of rFVIIa in patients who bleed after cardiac surgery. METHODS AND RESULTS In this phase II dose-escalation study, patients who had undergone cardiac surgery and were bleeding were randomized to receive placebo (n=68), 40 microg/kg rFVIIa (n=35), or 80 microg/kg rFVIIa (n=69). The primary end points were the number of patients suffering critical serious adverse events. Secondary end points included rates of reoperation, amount of blood loss, and transfusion of allogeneic blood. There were more critical serious adverse events in the rFVIIa groups. These differences did not reach statistical significance (placebo, 7%; 40 microg/kg, 14%; P=0. 25; 80 microg/kg, 12%; P=0. 43). After randomization, significantly fewer patients in the rFVIIa group underwent a reoperation as a result of bleeding (P=0. 03) or required allogeneic transfusions (P=0. 01). CONCLUSIONS On the basis of this preliminary evidence, rFVIIa may be beneficial for treating bleeding after cardiac surgery, but caution should be applied and further clinical trials are required because there is an increase in the number of critical serious adverse events, including stroke, in those patients randomized to receive rFVIIa.
Washing of drained blood does not alter immediate immune effects of retransfusion
BACKGROUND Retransfusion of postoperatively drained wound blood may be associated with adverse immune effects induced by many mediators present in unwashed filtered blood. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In this randomized trial, the hypothesis that a washing procedure alters the course of markers of immune and inflammatory responses after retransfusion of blood collected from patients after endoprosthetic surgery is tested. Mean volume of blood reinfused was 363 +/- 173 mL in Group A and 352 +/- 180 mL in Group B. Five hours postoperatively patients either received washed (Group A) or unwashed (Group B) blood collected during the postoperative period. Circulating cytokines (tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, IL-8, IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein [MCP]-1) and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated TNF-alpha secretion were measured at several time points pre- and postoperatively. RESULTS IL-6 and IL-8 slightly increased immediately after retransfusion in both groups (by 48 +/- 37 and 5 +/- 2 pg/mL, respectively, in Group A; by 74 +/- 60 and 17 +/- 13 pg/mL in Group B). IL-10 and MCP-1 were unaltered and both circulating TNF-alpha and LPS stimulated capacity in TNF-alpha secretion decreased (by 5 +/- 13 and 1 +/- 31 pg/mL, respectively, in Group A; by 3 +/- 14 and 29 +/- 39 pg/mL in Group B), independent from a washing procedure. CONCLUSION For small reinfusion volumes a washing procedure does not alter the ex vivo capacity of LPS induced TNF-alpha secretion and the selected cytokine profile after retransfusion of postoperatively drained and filtered blood.
Recombinant activated factor VIIa for the treatment of bleeding in major abdominal surgery including vascular and urological surgery: a review and meta-analysis of published data
Critical Care. 2008;12((1):):R14.
BACKGROUND The purpose of this study was to determine the role of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) in abdominal, vascular, and urological surgery. METHODS We conducted meta-analyses of case series and placebo-controlled studies reporting on the treatment or prophylaxis of bleeding with rFVIIa regarding 'reduction or cessation of bleeding', 'mortality', and 'thromboembolism'. RESULTS All case reports (n = 15 case reports and 17 patients) documented an effect of rFVIIa in the treatment of bleeding. A meta-analysis of 10 case series revealed a reduction or cessation of bleeding in 39 out of 50 patients after administration of rFVIIa (estimated mean effect 73.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 51.0% to 95.4%) and a mean probability of survival of 53.0% (95% CI 26.4% to 79.7%). Among the rFVIIa responders, 19 out of 29 patients (66%) survived versus 1 out of 10 rFVIIa nonresponders (P = 0.003). Six out of 36 patients from the case series had a thromboembolic complication (estimated mean probability 16.5%, 95% CI 1.2% to 31.8%). Compared with a meta-analysis of eight placebo-controlled studies, no increased risk of thromboembolism was seen after administration of rFVIIa. CONCLUSION The meta-analysis of case series showed that, in a mean of 73% patients, rFVIIa achieved at least a reduction of bleeding and that the probability of survival is increased in patients responding to rFVIIa. rFVIIa was not associated with an increased risk of thromboembolism compared with placebo.