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Ferric citrate for the treatment of hyperphosphatemia and anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials

Ren Fail. 2022 Dec;44(1):1112-1122 doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2022.2094273.
PICO Summary
POPULATION:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperphosphataemia and anaemia (16 randomised controlled trials, n= 1,754).

INTERVENTION:

Ferric citrate treatment.

COMPARISON:

Control drugs, including placebo and positive drugs.

OUTCOME:

The meta-analysis showed that ferric citrate could significantly reduce the serum phosphorus in CKD patients compared to the placebo control groups (MD -1.76 mg/dL; 95% CI [-2.78, -0.75]). The difference between ferric citrate treatment and active controls, such as non-iron-based phosphate binders, sevelamer, calcium carbonate, lanthanum carbonate and sodium ferrous citrate, was not statistically significant (MD -0.09 mg/dL; 95% CI [-0.35, 0.17]). Ferric citrate could effectively improve haemoglobin levels when compared to the active drug (MD 0.43 g/dL; 95% CI [0.04, 0.82]) and placebo groups (MD 0.39 g/dL; 95% CI [0.04, 0.73]). According to eight studies, ferric citrate was found to be cost-effective treatment in comparison to control drugs. Most of the adverse events following ferric citrate treatment were mild at most.

Abstract
BACKGROUND:

Hyperphosphatemia and anemia, which are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), can independently contribute to cardiovascular events. Several previous studies have found that the iron-based phosphate binder, ferric citrate (FC), could be beneficial to both hyperphosphatemia and anemia.

METHODS:

Relevant literature from PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCRCT) and MEDLINE databases were searched up to 21 February 2022, in order to conduct a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy, safety and economic benefits of ferric citrate treatment in CKD patients with hyperphosphatemia and anemia. The meta-analysis was conducted independently by two reviewers using the RevMan software (version 5.3).

RESULTS:

In total, this study included 16 randomized clinical trials (RCT) involving 1754 participants. The meta-analysis showed that ferric citrate could significantly reduce the serum phosphorus in CKD patients compared to the placebo control groups (MD -1.76 mg/dL, 95% CI (-2.78, -0.75); p = 0.0007). In contrast, the difference between ferric citrate treatment and active controls, such as non-iron-based phosphate binders, sevelamer, calcium carbonate, lanthanum carbonate and sodium ferrous citrate, was not statistically significant (MD - 0.09 mg/dL, 95% CI (-0.35, 0.17); p = 0.51). However, ferric citrate could effectively improve hemoglobin levels when compared to the active drug (MD 0.43 g/dL, 95% CI (0.04, 0.82); p = 0.03) and placebo groups (MD 0.39 g/dL, 95% CI (0.04, 0.73); p = 0.03). According to eight studies, ferric citrate was found to be cost-effective treatment in comparison to control drugs. Most of the adverse events (AE) following ferric citrate treatment were mild at most.

CONCLUSION:

Collectively, our review suggests that iron-based phosphate binder, ferric citrate is an effective and safe treatment option for CKD patients with hyperphosphatemia and anemia. More importantly, this alternative treatment may also less expensive. Nevertheless, more scientific studies are warranted to validate our findings.

Metadata
KEYWORDS: Ferric citrate; anemia; chronic kidney disease; hyperphosphatemia; meta-analysis
MESH HEADINGS: Anemia; Ferric Compounds; Humans; Hyperphosphatemia; Phosphates; Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic; Renal Insufficiency, Chronic
Study Details
Study Design: Systematic Review
Language: eng
Credits: NLM