Editor's Choice

Safety and Efficacy of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitors vs. Erythropoietin-Stimulating Agents in Treating Anemia in Renal Patients (With or Without Dialysis): A Meta-Analysis and Systematic Review

Cureus. 2023 Oct 21;15(10):e47430 doi: 10.7759/cureus.47430.
PICO Summary
POPULATION:

Patients with chronic kidney disease regardless of their dialysis status, who also exhibited anaemia (19 randomised controlled trials, n= 22,151).

INTERVENTION:

Hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (HIF-PHIs): roxadustat, daprodustat, and vadadustat (n= 11,234).

COMPARISON:

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) (n= 10,917).

OUTCOME:

HIF-PHI yielded a slight but significant increase in change in mean haemoglobin levels (MD 0.06; 95% CI [0.00, 0.11]), with the maximum significant increase shown in roxadustat followed by daprodustat as compared to ESA. There was a significant decrease in efficacy outcomes such as change in mean iron (MD -1.54; 95% CI [-3.01, -0.06]), change in mean hepcidin (MD -21.04; 95% CI [-28.92, -13.17]), change in mean ferritin (MD -16.45; 95% CI [-27.17, -5.73]) with roxadustat showing maximum efficacy followed by daprodustat.

Abstract

Hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (HIF-PHIs) are a novel group of drugs used to treat renal anemia, but their benefits vary among different trials. Our meta-analysis aims to assess the safety and efficacy of HIF-PHI versus erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) in managing anemia among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), regardless of their dialysis status. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were queried to discover eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To quantify the specific effects of HIF-PHI, we estimated pooled mean differences (MDs) and relative risks (RR) with 95% CIs. Our meta-analysis involved 22,151 CKD patients, with 11,234 receiving HIF-PHI and 10,917 receiving ESA from 19 different RCTs. The HIF-PHI used included roxadustat, daprodustat, and vadadustat. HIF-PHI yielded a slight but significant increase in change in mean hemoglobin (Hb) levels (MD: 0.06, 95% CI (0.00, 0.11); p = 0.03), with the maximum significant increase shown in roxadustat followed by daprodustat as compared to ESA. There was a significant decrease in efficacy outcomes such as change in mean iron (MD: -1.54, 95% CI (-3.01, -0.06); p = 0.04), change in mean hepcidin (MD: -21.04, 95% CI (-28.92, -13.17); p < 0.00001), change in mean ferritin (MD: -16.45, 95% CI (-27.17,-5.73); p = 0.03) with roxadustat showing maximum efficacy followed by daprodustat. As for safety, HIF-PHI showed significantly increased incidence in safety outcomes such as diarrhea (MD: 1.3, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51); p = 0.001), adverse events leading to withdrawal (MD: 2.03, 95% CI (1.5, 2.74), p = 0.00001) among 25 various analyzed outcomes. This meta-analysis indicates that HIF-PHIs present a potentially safer and more effective alternative to ESAs, with increased Hb levels and decreased iron usage in CKD patients without significantly increasing adverse events. Therefore, in these patients, we propose HIF-PHI alongside renal anemia treatment.

Metadata
KEYWORDS: and efficacy; anemia; dialysis; erythropoietin stimulating agents; hypoxic inducible factors prolyl hydroxylase inhibitors; kidney; renal; safety; treatment; without dialysis
Study Details
Study Design: Systematic Review
Language: eng
Credits: Bibliographic data from MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine