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Editor's Choice
  • Liu CW
  • Anih J
  • Lebedeva V
  • Gungor A
  • Wang C
  • et al.
J Clin Anesth. 2024 Jun;94:111417 doi: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2024.111417.
POPULATION:

Patients undergoing non-obstetric surgery (300 trials, n= 53,085).

INTERVENTION:

Intravenous tranexamic acid.

COMPARISON:

Placebo or usual care without tranexamic acid.

OUTCOME:

From all the included studies, 45,958 participants (86.6%) were enrolled in 228 trials (76.0%) that explicitly excluded patients with kidney disease. Definitions of kidney diseased used for exclusion varied widely. Most were non-specific and some corresponded to mild disease. Only 5 trials adjusted dosing for kidney function. Meta-analysis of two large trials found tranexamic acid unlikely to substantially increase or decrease the occurrence of thrombotic events in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RR 0.95; 95% CI [0.83, 1.07]) or ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RR 1.00; 95% CI [0.91, 1.11], but both trials excluded patients with severe kidney disease. No analysis could be performed regarding seizure risk. One large trial in non-cardiac surgery reported similar reduction in bleeding across subgroups of kidney function but excluded patients with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min.

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

To assess how kidney disease is handled in randomized trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of perioperative tranexamic acid, and to evaluate its effects across levels of kidney function.

DESIGN:

Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

SETTING:

We screened studies from a previous comprehensive systematic review, and updated its search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL to July 31, 2023.

PATIENTS:

Patients undergoing non-obstetric surgery.

INTERVENTIONS:

Intravenous tranexamic acid compared to placebo or usual care without tranexamic acid.

MEASUREMENT:

We summarized the handling of kidney disease in eligibility criteria, dose adjustments for kidney function, and effects of tranexamic acid on thrombotic events, seizures, and bleeding by subgroups of kidney function.

MAIN RESULTS:

We evaluated 300 trials with 53,085 participants; 45,958 participants (86.6%) were enrolled in 228 trials (76.0%) that explicitly excluded patients with kidney disease. Definitions of kidney diseased used for exclusion varied widely. Most were non-specific and some corresponded to mild disease. Only 5 trials adjusted dosing for kidney function. Meta-analysis of two large trials found tranexamic acid unlikely to substantially increase or decrease the occurrence of thrombotic events in patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (RR, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.07) or ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.11; P for subgroup difference = 0.47), but both trials excluded patients with severe kidney disease. No analysis could be performed regarding seizure risk. One large trial in noncardiac surgery reported similar reduction in bleeding across subgroups of kidney function but excluded patients with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min.

CONCLUSIONS:

The large evidence base supporting perioperative tranexamic acid suffers from broad and unjustified exclusion of patients with kidney disease. Typical perioperative dosing of tranexamic acid is likely safe and effective in patients with creatinine clearance >30 mL/min, but effects in more severe kidney disease are unknown.

Editor's Choice
  • Goltstein LCMJ
  • Grooteman KV
  • Bernts LHP
  • Scheffer RCH
  • Laheij RJF
  • et al.
Gastroenterology. 2024 Apr;166(4):690-703 doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2023.12.020.
POPULATION:

Patients with refractory anemia due to bleeding gastrointestinal angiodysplasias, enrolled in the OCEAN randomised controlled trial (n= 62).

INTERVENTION:

Octreotide (n= 31).

COMPARISON:

Standard of care (n= 31).

OUTCOME:

The treatment duration was one year. The primary outcome was the mean difference in the number of transfusion units (red blood cell + parental iron) between the octreotide and standard of care groups. The total number of transfusions was lower with octreotide (11.0; 95% CI [5.5, 16.5]) compared to standard of care (21.2; 95% CI [15.7, 26.7]). Octreotide reduced the mean number of transfusion units by 10.2; 95% CI [2.4, 18.1]. Octreotide reduced the annual volume of endoscopic procedures by 0.9; 95% CI [0.3, 1.5].

BACKGROUND & AIMS:

Gastrointestinal angiodysplasias are vascular anomalies that may result in transfusion-dependent anemia despite endoscopic therapy. An individual patient data meta-analysis of cohort studies suggests that octreotide decreases rebleeding rates, but component studies possessed a high risk of bias. We investigated the efficacy of octreotide in reducing the transfusion requirements of patients with angiodysplasia-related anemia in a clinical trial setting.

METHODS:

The study was designed as a multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Patients with angiodysplasia bleeding were required to have had at least 4 red blood cell (RBC) units or parental iron infusions, or both, in the year preceding randomization. Patients were allocated (1:1) to 40-mg octreotide long-acting release intramuscular every 28 days or standard of care, including endoscopic therapy. The treatment duration was 1 year. The primary outcome was the mean difference in the number of transfusion units (RBC + parental iron) between the octreotide and standard of care groups. Patients who received at least 1 octreotide injection or followed standard of care for at least 1 month were included in the intention-to-treat analyses. Analyses of covariance were used to adjust for baseline transfusion requirements and incomplete follow-up.

RESULTS:

We enrolled 62 patients (mean age, 72 years; 32 men) from 17 Dutch hospitals in the octreotide (n = 31) and standard of care (n = 31) groups. Patients required a mean number of 20.3 (standard deviation, 15.6) transfusion units and 2.4 (standard deviation, 2.0) endoscopic procedures in the year before enrollment. The total number of transfusions was lower with octreotide (11.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 5.5-16.5) compared with standard of care (21.2; 95% CI, 15.7-26.7). Octreotide reduced the mean number of transfusion units by 10.2 (95% CI, 2.4-18.1; P = .012). Octreotide reduced the annual volume of endoscopic procedures by 0.9 (95% CI, 0.3-1.5).

CONCLUSIONS:

Octreotide effectively reduces transfusion requirements and the need for endoscopic therapy in patients with angiodysplasia-related anemia.

CLINICALTRIALS:

gov, NCT02384122.

Editor's Choice
  • Martens P
  • Augusto SN
  • Mullens W
  • Tang WHW
  • Martens, P.
  • et al.
JACC Heart Fail. 2024 Mar;12(3):525-536 doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2023.11.006.
POPULATION:

Patients with iron deficiency and heart failure (HF), (14 randomised controlled trials, n= 6,624).

INTERVENTION:

Intravenous iron (n= 3,407).

COMPARISON:

Placebo (n= 3,217).

OUTCOME:

Treatment with intravenous iron resulted in a lower risk for cardiovascular (CV) death (OR: 0.867; 95% CI [0.755, 0.955]), combined CV death and HF admission (OR: 0.838; 95% CI [0.751, 0.936]), first HF admission (OR: 0.855; 95% CI [0.744, 0.983]), and total HF admissions (rate ratio: 0.739; 95% CI [0.661, 0.827]). Significant heterogeneity among trial results was observed for first and total HF admissions. Meta-regression suggested that some of the heterogeneity was related to the baseline transferrin saturation (TSAT) of the enrolled population, with trials enrolling patients with lower TSAT exhibiting a large effect size on HF-related events.

BACKGROUND:

Guidelines recommend that intravenous iron should be considered to improve symptoms of heart failure (HF) and reduce the risk for HF admissions in patients after acute HF.

OBJECTIVES:

This study sought to analyze the effect of intravenous iron on cardiovascular (CV) death and HF admissions in a broad population of HF patients with iron deficiency and the relation with baseline transferrin saturation (TSAT).

METHODS:

A systematic review of all published randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of intravenous iron in patients with iron deficiency and HF between January 1, 2000, and August 26, 2023, was performed. The overall treatment effect was estimated using a fixed effect model for: 1) CV death; 2) CV death and HF admission; 3) first HF admission; and 4) total HF admissions. Metaregression through a mixed effect model was used to explore the impact of baseline TSAT in case of heterogeneity among trial results.

RESULTS:

A total of 14 randomized controlled trials were identified in the systematic review and retained in the meta-analysis. Aggregate-level data were included on 6,624 HF patients, 3,407 of whom were randomized to intravenous iron and 3,217 to placebo. Treatment with intravenous iron resulted in a lower risk for CV death (OR: 0.867 [95% CI: 0.755-0.955]; P = 0.0427), combined CV death and HF admission (OR: 0.838 [95% CI: 0.751-0.936]; P = 0.0015), first HF admission (OR: 0.855 [95% CI: 0.744-0.983]; P = 0.0281), and total HF admissions (rate ratio: 0.739 [95% CI: 0.661-0.827]; P < 0.0001). Significant heterogeneity among trial results was observed for first and total HF admissions. Metaregression suggested that some of the heterogeneity was related to the baseline TSAT of the enrolled population, with trials enrolling patients with lower TSAT exhibiting a large effect size on HF-related events.

CONCLUSIONS:

The totality of data suggests that treatment with intravenous iron reduces both CV death and HF-related events in a broad population with HF. A lower baseline TSAT might be important for the effect on HF-related events.

Editor's Choice
  • Bus SR
  • de Haan RJ
  • Vermeulen M
  • van Schaik IN
  • Eftimov F
  • et al.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2024 Feb 14;2(2):CD001797 doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001797.pub4.
POPULATION:

People with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (9 randomised controlled trials, n= 372).

INTERVENTION:

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg).

COMPARISON:

Placebo; plasma exchange; corticosteroids (prednisolone and intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP)).

OUTCOME:

The primary outcome was significant improvement in disability within six weeks after the start of treatment. There was low statistical heterogeneity between the trial results, and the overall risk of bias was low for all trials that contributed data to the analysis. IVIg compared with placebo increases the probability of significant improvement in disability within six weeks of the start of treatment (risk ratio (RR) 2.40; 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.72, 3.36]; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 4; 95% CI [3, 5]; 5 trials, 269 participants, high-certainty evidence). The trial comparing IVIg with plasma exchange reported none of our main outcomes. IVIg compared with prednisolone probably has little or no effect on the probability of significant improvement in disability four weeks after the start of treatment (RR 0.91; 95% CI [0.50, 1.68]; 1 trial, 29 participants, moderate-certainty evidence). IVIg compared with IVMP probably increases the likelihood of significant improvement in disability two weeks after starting treatment (RR 1.46; 95% CI [0.40, 5.38]; 1 trial, 45 participants, moderate-certainty evidence).

BACKGROUND:

Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) causes progressive or relapsing weakness and numbness of the limbs, which lasts for at least two months. Uncontrolled studies have suggested that intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) could help to reduce symptoms. This is an update of a review first published in 2002 and last updated in 2013.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the efficacy and safety of intravenous immunoglobulin in people with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched the Cochrane Neuromuscular Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, and two trials registers on 8 March 2023.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that tested any dose of IVIg versus placebo, plasma exchange, or corticosteroids in people with definite or probable CIDP.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcome was significant improvement in disability within six weeks after the start of treatment, as determined and defined by the study authors. Our secondary outcomes were change in mean disability score within six weeks, change in muscle strength (Medical Research Council (MRC) sum score) within six weeks, change in mean disability score at 24 weeks or later, frequency of serious adverse events, and frequency of any adverse events. We used GRADE to assess the certainty of evidence for our main outcomes.

MAIN RESULTS:

We included nine RCTs with 372 participants (235 male) from Europe, North America, South America, and Israel. There was low statistical heterogeneity between the trial results, and the overall risk of bias was low for all trials that contributed data to the analysis. Five trials (235 participants) compared IVIg with placebo, one trial (20 participants) compared IVIg with plasma exchange, two trials (72 participants) compared IVIg with prednisolone, and one trial (45 participants) compared IVIg with intravenous methylprednisolone (IVMP). We included one new trial in this update, though it contributed no data to any meta-analyses. IVIg compared with placebo increases the probability of significant improvement in disability within six weeks of the start of treatment (risk ratio (RR) 2.40, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.72 to 3.36; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 4, 95% CI 3 to 5; 5 trials, 269 participants; high-certainty evidence). Since each trial used a different disability scale and definition of significant improvement, we were unable to evaluate the clinical relevance of the pooled effect. IVIg compared with placebo improves disability measured on the Rankin scale (0 to 6, lower is better) two to six weeks after the start of treatment (mean difference (MD) -0.26 points, 95% CI -0.48 to -0.05; 3 trials, 90 participants; high-certainty evidence). IVIg compared with placebo probably improves disability measured on the Inflammatory Neuropathy Cause and Treatment (INCAT) scale (1 to 10, lower is better) after 24 weeks (MD 0.80 points, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.37; 1 trial, 117 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference between IVIg and placebo in the frequency of serious adverse events (RR 0.82, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.87; 3 trials, 315 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The trial comparing IVIg with plasma exchange reported none of our main outcomes. IVIg compared with prednisolone probably has little or no effect on the probability of significant improvement in disability four weeks after the start of treatment (RR 0.91, 95% CI 0.50 to 1.68; 1 trial, 29 participants; moderate-certainty evidence), and little or no effect on change in mean disability measured on the Rankin scale (MD 0.21 points, 95% CI -0.19 to 0.61; 1 trial, 24 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There is probably little or no difference between IVIg and prednisolone in the frequency of serious adverse events (RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.04 to 4.69; 1 cross-over trial, 32 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). IVIg compared with IVMP probably increases the likelihood of significant improvement in disability two weeks after starting treatment (RR 1.46, 95% CI 0.40 to 5.38; 1 trial, 45 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). IVIg compared with IVMP probably has little or no effect on change in disability measured on the Rankin scale two weeks after the start of treatment (MD 0.24 points, 95% CI -0.15 to 0.63; 1 trial, 45 participants; moderate-certainty evidence) or on change in mean disability measured with the Overall Neuropathy Limitation Scale (ONLS, 1 to 12, lower is better) 24 weeks after the start of treatment (MD 0.03 points, 95% CI -0.91 to 0.97; 1 trial, 45 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). The frequency of serious adverse events may be higher with IVIg compared with IVMP (RR 4.40, 95% CI 0.22 to 86.78; 1 trial, 45 participants, moderate-certainty evidence).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

Evidence from RCTs shows that IVIg improves disability for at least two to six weeks compared with placebo, with an NNTB of 4. During this period, IVIg probably has similar efficacy to oral prednisolone and IVMP. Further placebo-controlled trials are unlikely to change these conclusions. In one large trial, the benefit of IVIg compared with placebo in terms of improved disability score persisted for 24 weeks. Further research is needed to assess the long-term benefits and harms of IVIg relative to other treatments.

Editor's Choice
  • Fussner LA
  • Flores-Suárez LF
  • Cartin-Ceba R
  • Specks U
  • Cox PG
  • et al.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2024 Feb 12; doi: 10.1164/rccm.202308-1426OC.
POPULATION:

Patients with severe antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis including glomerulonephritis and/or diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH), enrolled in the PEXIVAS trial (n= 704).

INTERVENTION:

Plasma exchange (PLEX) and standard glucocorticoid (GC) (n= 176). PLEX and reduced GC (n= 176).

COMPARISON:

No PLEX and standard GC (n= 175). No PLEX and reduced GC (n= 177).

OUTCOME:

At enrollment, 191 (27.1%) participants had DAH and were younger, more frequently relapsing, proteinase 3-ANCA positive, and had lower serum creatinine but were more frequently dialyzed than participants without DAH (n= 513 (72.9%)). Among those with DAH, 8/95 (8.4%) receiving PLEX died within one year vs. 15/96 (15.6%) with no-PLEX (HR 0.52; CI [0.21, 1.24]), while 13/96 (13.5%) receiving reduced-GC died vs. 10/95 (10.5%) with standard-GC (HR 1.33; CI [0.57, 3.13]). When ventilated, ventilator-free days were similar with PLEX vs. no-PLEX (medians 25; IQR 22, 26 vs. 22, 27), fewer with reduced-GC (23 [20, 25]) vs. standard-GC (26 [25, 28]). Treatment effects on mortality did not vary by presence or severity of DAH. Overall, 23/191 (12.0%) with DAH died within one year vs. 34/513 (6.6%) without DAH. End-stage kidney disease and serious infections did not differ by DAH status or treatments.

RATIONALE:

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) is a life-threatening manifestation of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated vasculitis (AAV). The Plasma Exchange (PLEX) and Glucocorticoids (GC) in Severe AAV (PEXIVAS;NCT00987389) trial was the largest in AAV and first to enroll participants with DAH requiring mechanical ventilation.

OBJECTIVES:

Evaluate characteristics, treatment effects, outcomes for patients with AAV with and without DAH.

METHODS:

PEXIVAS randomized 704 participants to PLEX or no-PLEX and reduced or standard-dose GC. DAH status was defined at enrollment as no-DAH, non-severe, or severe (room air SpO2≤85% or use of mechanical ventilation).

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS:

At enrollment, 191(27.1%) participants had DAH (61 severe, including 29 ventilated) and were younger, more frequently relapsing, PR3-ANCA positive, and had lower serum creatinine but were more frequently dialyzed than participants without DAH (n=513,72.9%). Among those with DAH, 8/95(8.4%) receiving PLEX died within one year vs. 15/96(15.6%) with no-PLEX (HR 0.52,CI 0.21-1.24), while 13/96(13.5%) receiving reduced-GC died vs. 10/95(10.5%) with standard-GC (HR 1.33,CI 0.57-3.13). When ventilated, ventilator-free days were similar with PLEX vs. no-PLEX (medians 25,IQR 22-26 vs. 22-27), fewer with reduced-GC (23[20-25]) vs. standard-GC (26[25-28]). Treatment effects on mortality did not vary by presence or severity of DAH. Overall, 23/191(12.0%) with DAH died within one year vs. 34/513(6.6%) without DAH. End-stage kidney disease and serious infections did not differ by DAH status or treatments.

CONCLUSION:

Patients with AAV and DAH differ from those without DAH in multiple ways. Further data are required to confirm or refute a benefit of PLEX or GC dosing on mortality. Clinical trial registration available at www.

CLINICALTRIALS:

gov, ID: NCT00987389.

Editor's Choice
  • Park GN
  • Lee KH
  • Moon JE
  • Choi SJ
  • Park MY
  • et al.
Kidney Res Clin Pract. 2024 Jan 23; doi: 10.23876/j.krcp.23.074.
POPULATION:

Patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis (n= 40).

INTERVENTION:

Darbepoetin alfa (DA), (n= 20).

COMPARISON:

Continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA), (n= 20).

OUTCOME:

The patients received the study drug once in 4 weeks during 10- or 12-week correction period and 24-week efficacy evaluation period. The primary outcomes were the mean difference in the changes in haemoglobin levels between baseline and efficacy evaluation period and haemoglobin response rates during the correction period. DA was non-inferior to CERA for anaemia correction; the mean difference in the change in haemoglobin levels between the groups was -0.070 g/dL (95% confidence interval [-0.730, 0.590 g/dL]). Haemoglobin response rates were 100% with DA and 94.1% with CERA. Adverse events were comparable. The mean cost of DA was approximately one-third that of CERA (34,100 ± 7,600 Korean won/4 weeks vs. 115,500 ± 23,600 Korean won/4 weeks).

BACKGROUND:

For anemia management in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis, darbepoetin alfa (DA), which has a shorter half-life but is more inexpensive than continuous erythropoietin receptor activator (CERA), is preferred in Korea. This study evaluated the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of once-in-4-weeks DA compared with once-in-4-weeks CERA in patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis.

METHODS:

In this randomized, prospective, non-inferiority study, 40 erythropoiesis-stimulating agent-naïve patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis were randomized 1:1 to the DA group and CERA group. They received the study drug once in 4 weeks during 10- or 12-week correction period and 24-week efficacy evaluation period. The primary outcomes were the mean difference in the changes in hemoglobin levels between baseline and efficacy evaluation period and hemoglobin response rates during the correction period. The secondary outcomes included differences in adverse events and costs.

RESULTS:

DA was non-inferior to CERA for anemia correction; the mean difference in the change in hemoglobin levels between the groups was -0.070 g/dL (95% confidence interval, -0.730 to 0.590 g/dL). Hemoglobin response rates were 100% with DA and 94.1% with CERA. Adverse events were comparable. The mean cost of DA was approximately one-third that of CERA (34,100 ± 7,600 Korean won/4 weeks vs. 115,500 ± 23,600 Korean won/4 weeks; p < 0.001).

CONCLUSION:

Once-in-4-weeks DA safely corrects anemia in erythropoiesis-stimulating agent-naïve patients with chronic kidney disease not on dialysis and is more cost-effective than once-in-4-weeks CERA.

Editor's Choice
  • Kim D
  • Bashrum BS
  • Kotlier JL
  • Mayfield CK
  • Thompson AA
  • et al.
Arthrosc Sports Med Rehabil. 2024 Jan 16;6(1):100851 doi: 10.1016/j.asmr.2023.100851.
POPULATION:

Patients with hip osteoarthritis (15 systematic reviews).

INTERVENTION:

Systematic review to describe the incidence and types of spin bias in systematic reviews of platelet-rich plasma injections for hip osteoarthritis and to determine whether patterns in study characteristics could be identified among studies with identifiable spin.

COMPARISON:

OUTCOME:

All studies contained at least two types of spin (range 2-9), with a median of 2. The most common type of spin was type 14 ("Failure to report a wide confidence interval of estimates"), which was observed in 10 studies. The second most common type of spin was type 13 ("Failure to specify the direction of the effect when it favors the control intervention"), found in 6 studies. Several associations were found between spin types and the study characteristics of AMSTAR 2 rating, Scopus CiteScore, journal impact factor, and PROSPERO preregistration.

PURPOSE:

To describe the incidence and types of spin in systematic reviews of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) injections for hip osteoarthritis (OA) and to determine whether patterns in study characteristics could be identified among studies with identifiable spin.

METHODS:

The PubMed, Scopus, and SPORTDiscus databases were queried. Inclusion criteria were systematic reviews or meta-analyses that included an assessment of intra-articular PRP injections as a stand-alone treatment for hip OA. Two authors independently assessed the presence of spin in the included studies and recorded general study characteristics. The prevalence of the 15 different categories of spin was quantified using descriptive statistics.

RESULTS:

Fifteen studies met inclusion criteria for this study. All studies contained at least two types of spin (range 2-9), with a median of 2. The most common type of spin was type 14 ("Failure to report a wide confidence interval of estimates"), which was observed in 10 studies. The second most common type of spin was type 13 ("Failure to specify the direction of the effect when it favors the control intervention"), found in 6 studies.

CONCLUSIONS:

Spin is highly prevalent in abstracts of systematic reviews of PRP in the treatment of hip OA. Several associations were found between spin types and the study characteristics of AMSTAR 2 rating, Scopus CiteScore, journal impact factor, and PROSPERO preregistration. When present, spin in the abstracts of reviewed studies tended to favor the use of PRP in hip osteoarthritis.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE:

It is important to understand the prevalence of spin in published abstracts, especially in areas of great impact or interest, so authors and readers can have a greater awareness of this potential form of bias.

Editor's Choice
  • Miao J
  • Krisanapan P
  • Tangpanithandee S
  • Thongprayoon C
  • Cheungpasitporn W
  • et al.
Blood Purif. 2024;53(1):1-9 doi: 10.1159/000534102.
POPULATION:

Cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) patients with renal involvement (63 case reports and 13 case series, n= 154).

INTERVENTION:

Different therapeutic apheresis (TA) modalities: plasma exchange (PE), plasmapheresis (PP), and cryofiltration (CF).

COMPARISON:

OUTCOME:

A total of 154 patients experiencing 170 episodes of serious events that necessitated TA, were included in this systematic review. The CV type was classified as 15 type I cases, 97 type II cases, and 13 type III cases, while the remaining patients exhibited mixed (n= 17) or undetermined CV types (n= 12). Among the treatment modalities, PE, PP, and CF were performed in 85 (56%), 52 (34%), and 17 patients (11%), respectively, with no identical protocol for TA treatment. The overall response rate for TA was 78%, with response rates of 84%, 77%, and 75% observed in type I, II, and III patients respectively. Most patients received steroids, immunosuppressants, and treatment targeting the underlying causative disease. The overall long-term renal outcome rate was 77%, with type I, II, and III patients experiencing response rates of 89%, 76%, and 90%, respectively. The renal outcomes in patients receiving PE, PP, and CF were comparable, with rates of 78%, 76%, and 81%, respectively.

INTRODUCTION:

Therapeutic apheresis (TA) is commonly used for cryoglobulinemic vasculitis (CV) patients, but its efficacy remains uncertain. This systematic review aimed to assess the efficacy of different TA modalities, such as plasma exchange (PE), plasmapheresis (PP), and cryofiltration (CF), in treating CV patients with renal involvement.

METHODS:

Literature search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Databases was conducted up to December 2022. Studies that reported the outcomes of TA in adult CV patients with renal involvement were assessed. The protocol for this systematic review has been registered with PROSPERO (No. CRD42023417727). The quality of each study was evaluated by the investigators using the validated methodological index for non-randomized studies (minors) quality score.

RESULTS:

154 patients who encountered 170 episodes of serious events necessitating TA were evaluated across 76 studies. Among them, 51% were males, with a mean age ranging from 49 to 58 years. The CV types included 15 type I, 97 type II, and 13 type III, while the remaining patients exhibited mixed (n = 17) or undetermined CV types (n = 12). Among the treatment modalities, PE, PP, and CF were performed in 85 (56%), 52 (34%), and 17 patients (11%), respectively, with no identical protocol for TA treatment. The overall response rate for TA was 78%, with response rates of 84%, 77%, and 75% observed in type I, II, and III patients respectively. Most patients received steroids, immunosuppressants, and treatment targeting the underlying causative disease. The overall long-term renal outcome rate was 77%, with type I, II, and III patients experiencing response rates of 89%, 76%, and 90%, respectively. The renal outcomes in patients receiving PE, PP, and CF were comparable, with rates of 78%, 76%, and 81%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS:

This study presents compelling evidence that combination of TA with other treatments, especially immunosuppressive therapy, is a successful strategy for effectively managing severe renal involvement in CV patients. Among the TA modalities studied, including PE, PP, and CF, all demonstrated efficacy, with PE being the most frequently employed approach.

Editor's Choice
  • Damarlapally N
  • Thimmappa V
  • Irfan H
  • Sikandari M
  • Madhu K
  • et al.
Cureus. 2023 Oct 21;15(10):e47430 doi: 10.7759/cureus.47430.
POPULATION:

Patients with chronic kidney disease regardless of their dialysis status, who also exhibited anaemia (19 randomised controlled trials, n= 22,151).

INTERVENTION:

Hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (HIF-PHIs): roxadustat, daprodustat, and vadadustat (n= 11,234).

COMPARISON:

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) (n= 10,917).

OUTCOME:

HIF-PHI yielded a slight but significant increase in change in mean haemoglobin levels (MD 0.06; 95% CI [0.00, 0.11]), with the maximum significant increase shown in roxadustat followed by daprodustat as compared to ESA. There was a significant decrease in efficacy outcomes such as change in mean iron (MD -1.54; 95% CI [-3.01, -0.06]), change in mean hepcidin (MD -21.04; 95% CI [-28.92, -13.17]), change in mean ferritin (MD -16.45; 95% CI [-27.17, -5.73]) with roxadustat showing maximum efficacy followed by daprodustat.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (HIF-PHIs) are a novel group of drugs used to treat renal anemia, but their benefits vary among different trials. Our meta-analysis aims to assess the safety and efficacy of HIF-PHI versus erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) in managing anemia among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), regardless of their dialysis status. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were queried to discover eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To quantify the specific effects of HIF-PHI, we estimated pooled mean differences (MDs) and relative risks (RR) with 95% CIs. Our meta-analysis involved 22,151 CKD patients, with 11,234 receiving HIF-PHI and 10,917 receiving ESA from 19 different RCTs. The HIF-PHI used included roxadustat, daprodustat, and vadadustat. HIF-PHI yielded a slight but significant increase in change in mean hemoglobin (Hb) levels (MD: 0.06, 95% CI (0.00, 0.11); p = 0.03), with the maximum significant increase shown in roxadustat followed by daprodustat as compared to ESA. There was a significant decrease in efficacy outcomes such as change in mean iron (MD: -1.54, 95% CI (-3.01, -0.06); p = 0.04), change in mean hepcidin (MD: -21.04, 95% CI (-28.92, -13.17); p < 0.00001), change in mean ferritin (MD: -16.45, 95% CI (-27.17,-5.73); p = 0.03) with roxadustat showing maximum efficacy followed by daprodustat. As for safety, HIF-PHI showed significantly increased incidence in safety outcomes such as diarrhea (MD: 1.3, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51); p = 0.001), adverse events leading to withdrawal (MD: 2.03, 95% CI (1.5, 2.74), p = 0.00001) among 25 various analyzed outcomes. This meta-analysis indicates that HIF-PHIs present a potentially safer and more effective alternative to ESAs, with increased Hb levels and decreased iron usage in CKD patients without significantly increasing adverse events. Therefore, in these patients, we propose HIF-PHI alongside renal anemia treatment.

Editor's Choice
  • Haridy NA
  • Shehab MM
  • Khedr EM
  • Haridy, N. A.
  • Shehab, M. M.
  • et al.
Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2023;41(5-6):203-217 doi: 10.3233/RNN-231369.
POPULATION:

Adult patients with acute Guillain-Barre syndrome (n= 81).

INTERVENTION:

Plasma exchange (PE), (n= 54).

COMPARISON:

Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), (n= 27).

OUTCOME:

Patients were assessed with the Medical Research Council sum score (MRC sum score), GBS Disability Scale, and Functional assessment of acute inflammatory neuropathy (FAAIN) at baseline, ten days, one month, three months, and one year. Neurophysiological examinations were performed at baseline and three months following treatment. Both treatments produced a significant improvement in all clinical rating scales in both groups that continued up to one year. There were significant differences in the time course of recovery in the MRC and FAAIN scales, with significantly more improvement in the IVIG group at 1 and 3 months, although there was no significant difference in outcome at one year. However the effect size showed measurable differences between the PE and IVIG groups across the different measures at one-year. Electrophysiological studies showed equal improvement in most measures in both groups at three months, with a slightly greater effect in the IVIG group.

BACKGROUND:

Most previous studies comparing the effectiveness of Plasma Exchange (PE) or intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in treating Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) have focused on the short-term outcome at around 1 month.

OBJECTIVE:

To compare the long-term efficacy of PE and IVIG at one year in adult patients with GBS.

METHODS:

Eighty-one adult patients with acute GBS were randomized into two groups with a ratio of 2 : 1: PE (N = 54) and IVIG (N = 27). Patients were assessed with the Medical Research Council sum score (MRC sum score), GBS Disability Scale (GDS), and Functional assessment of acute inflammatory neuropathy (FAAIN) at baseline, ten days, one month, three months, and one year. Neurophysiological examinations were performed at baseline and three months following treatment.

RESULTS:

There were no significant differences between groups in demographic, clinical, and laboratory data. Both treatments produced a significant improvement in all clinical rating scales in both groups that continued up to one year. There were significant differences in the time course of recovery in the MRC and FAAIN scales, with significantly more improvement in the IVIG group at 1 and 3 months, although there was no significant difference in outcome at one year. However the effect size showed measurable differences between the PE and IVIG groups across the different measures at one-year. Electrophysiological studies showed equal improvement in most measures in both groups at three months, with a slightly greater effect in the IVIG group.

CONCLUSION:

long term outcomes of IVIG and PE were equivalent. However the effect size showed measurable differences between the PE and IVIG groups across the different measures at one-year follow-up that indicate the superiorty of IVIG. There was also a tendency for improvement to be slightly faster in the IVIG group.