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  • Poston JN
  • Brown SP
  • Ilich A
  • Ginsburg AS
  • Herren H
  • et al.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost. 2024 Mar 1;8(2):102358 doi: 10.1016/j.rpth.2024.102358.
POPULATION:

Adult patients with a haematologic malignancy or aplasia undergoing chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or haematopoietic stem cell transplant, enrolled in the A-TREAT trial (n= 326).

INTERVENTION:

Tranexamic acid (TXA) (n= 163).

COMPARISON:

Placebo (n= 163).

OUTCOME:

This study was a post hoc analysis of the A-TREAT clinical trial data. TXA did not change the overall rate of infections, but the rate of severe infections (Common Toxicology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3+) was lower in patients who received TXA compared with the placebo group. Patients who experienced grade 3+ infections had higher rates of World Health Organization grade 2+ bleeding and red blood cell transfusion requirements than patients who did not experience a grade 3+ infection, irrespective of treatment group. TXA did not impact other inflammatory outcomes such as mucositis, rash, or graft vs. host disease.

BACKGROUND:

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is an antifibrinolytic agent that reduces bleeding in a multitude of clinical settings from postpartum hemorrhage to trauma. TXA may have clinical effects unrelated to bleeding; plasminogen, the target of TXA, alters immune responses, and TXA appears to decrease the risk of infection in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, as well as joint arthroplasty.

OBJECTIVES:

To address whether TXA alters rates of infection and inflammatory outcomes in patients with hematologic malignancies.

METHODS:

We performed a post hoc analysis of outcomes of patients randomized to receive either TXA or placebo in the double-blinded, multicenter American Trial to Evaluate Tranexamic Acid Therapy in Thrombocytopenia (Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT02578901).

RESULTS:

TXA did not change the overall rate of infections, but the rate of severe infections (Common Toxicology Criteria for Adverse Events grade 3+) was lower in patients who received TXA compared with the placebo group. Patients who experienced grade 3+ infections had higher rates of World Health Organization grade 2+ bleeding and red blood cell transfusion requirements than patients who did not experience a grade 3+ infection, irrespective of treatment group. TXA did not impact other inflammatory outcomes such as mucositis, rash, or graft vs host disease.

CONCLUSION:

Patients with hematologic malignancies who received TXA had less severe infections than those who received placebo with no difference in overall rate of infection or other inflammatory outcomes. Further investigation is needed on the impact of TXA on infections in this population.