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  • El-Shaer W
  • Haggag MS
  • Elshaer A
  • Shaboob I
  • Kandeel W
  • et al.
Int J Urol. 2022 Dec;29(12):1535-1542 doi: 10.1111/iju.15036.
POPULATION:

Patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) (n= 140).

INTERVENTION:

PCNL after tract infiltration with norepinephrine (NE) (NE-PCNL group, n= 70).

COMPARISON:

PCNL after tract infiltration with normal saline (S-PCNL group, n= 70).

OUTCOME:

The primary outcome was procedure-related blood loss. The median blood loss was 378 ml (IQR= 252, 504) in the NE-PCNL group versus 592 ml (IQR= 378, 756) in the S-PCNL group. Haemoglobin and haematocrit deficits were lower in NE-PCNL. Patients in the NE-PCNL group had a higher immediate stone-free rate (80%) compared with those of the S-PCNL group (70%). No statistical differences were found in the final stone free rate. The reported overall complications between the two groups were similar. Bleeding-related complications were 1 (1.4%) versus 10 (14.3%) for NE-PCNL and S-PCNL, respectively.

PURPOSE:

To determine the efficacy and safety of trajectory infiltration with 1:150 000 Norepinephrine (NE) in reducing blood loss during percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL).

MATERIALS AND METHODS:

This is a prospective randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled trial. In all, 140 consecutive patients underwent PCNL for the management of large renal calculi. They were randomly assigned (1:1) to one of either study groups, the NE-PCNL group (70 patients whose PCNL-trajectory was infiltrated by NE) or the Placebo group (saline PCNL) (70 patients whose PCNL tracts were infiltrated by normal saline). Procedure-related blood loss (the primary outcome) was assessed and statistically analyzed. Also, all other procedure-related events and complications were recorded and compared.

RESULTS:

The median blood loss was 378 ml (IQR: 252-504) in the NE-PCNL group versus 592 ml (IQR: 378-756) in the S-PCNL group (p < 0.0001). In addition, Hemoglobin and Hematocrit deficits were lower in NE-PCNL (p < 0.05). Patients who were randomized to the NE-PCNL group had a higher immediate stone-free rate (SFR) (80%) compared with those of the S-PCNL group (70%) (p = 0.034). However, no statistical differences were found in the final SFR. The reported overall complications between the 2 groups were similar (p > 0.05). Indeed, bleeding-related complications were 1 (1.4%) versus 10 (14.3%) for NE-PCNL and S-PCNL, respectively (p = 0.009).

CONCLUSIONS:

Trajectory infiltration of PCNL tracts by NE was found to be effective and safe in mitigation of PCNL-related blood loss. This step is a timeless and cost-effective as NE is readily available in surgical theaters and of very low cost.