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Editor's Choice
  • Wang M
  • Che JX
  • Chen L
  • Song TT
  • Qu JT
  • et al.
Chin Med Sci J. 2024 Mar;39(1):54-68 doi: 10.24920/004294.
POPULATION:

Patients undergoing spine surgery (21 randomised controlled trials, n= 1,388).

INTERVENTION:

Dexmedetomidine (Dex).

COMPARISON:

Saline.

OUTCOME:

This meta-analysis revealed a negative effect of Dex on haemodynamics. Dex increased the risk of hypotension and bradycardia during spine surgery, while it did not reduce intraoperative blood loss. The risk of hypotension and bradycardia was higher with the use of a loading dose in combination with a maintenance dose than using a maintenance dose alone. Dex was more likely to cause severe hypotension rather than mild hypotension. In terms of heart rate reduction, the incidence of both mild and severe bradycardia increased.

Objective Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a highly selective α2 adrenoceptor agonist that reduces blood pressure and heart rate. However, its ability to provide stable hemodynamics and a clinically significant reduction in blood loss in spine surgery is still a matter of debate. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Dex on intraoperative hemodynamics and blood loss in patients undergoing spine surgery.Methods The Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to February 2023 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including patients undergoing spine surgeries under general anaesthesia and comparing Dex and saline. A fixed- or random-effect model was used depending on heterogeneity.Results Twenty-one RCTs, including 1388 patients, were identified. Dex added the overall risk of intraoperative hypotension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 - 3.58; P=0.006) and bradycardia (OR: 2.48; 95%CI: 1.57 - 3.93; P=0.0001). The use of a loading dose of Dex led to significantly increased risks of intraoperative hypotension (OR: 2.00; 95%CI: 1.06 - 3.79; P=0.03) and bradycardia (OR: 2.28; 95%CI: 1.42 - 3.66; P=0.0007). For patients receiving total intravenous anesthesia, there was an increased risk of hypotension (OR: 2.90; 95%CI: 1.24 - 6.82; P=0.01) and bradycardia (OR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.53 - 4.61; P=0. 0005). For patients in the inhalation anesthesia group, only an increased risk of bradycardia (OR: 4.95; 95%CI: 1.41 - 17.37; P=0.01) was observed. No significant increase in the risk of hypotension and bradycardia was found in the combined intravenous-inhalation anesthesia group. The incidence of severe hypotension (OR: 2.57; 95%CI: 1.05 - 6.32; P=0.04), but not mild hypotension, was increased. Both mild (OR: 2.55; 95%CI: 1.06 - 6.15; P=0.04) and severe (OR: 2.45; 95%CI: 1.43 - 4.20; P=0.001) bradycardia were associated with a higher risk. The overall analyses did not reveal significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss. However, a significant decrease in blood loss was observed in total inhalation anesthesia subgroup (mean difference [MD]: -82.97; 95%CI: -109.04 - -56.90; P<0.001).Conclusions Dex increases the risks of intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia in major spine surgery. The administration of a loading dose of Dex and the utilization of various anesthesia maintenance methods may potentially impact hemodynamic stability and intraoperative blood loss.

Editor's Choice
  • Wang C
  • Lebedeva V
  • Yang J
  • Anih J
  • Park LJ
  • et al.
Perioper Med (Lond). 2024 Jan 23;13(1):5 doi: 10.1186/s13741-023-00358-4.
POPULATION:

Children or adults without known inherited bleeding disorders undergoing surgery or other invasive procedures (63 randomised controlled trials, n= 4,163).

INTERVENTION:

Desmopressin administered intravenously or subcutaneously before, during, or immediately after a surgical or interventional procedure.

COMPARISON:

Placebo, usual care, or antifibrinolytic agents.

OUTCOME:

Meta-analyses demonstrated that desmopressin likely does not reduce the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion (25 trials, risk ratio [RR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.86, 1.05]) and may not reduce the risk of reoperation due to bleeding (22 trials, RR 0.75; 95% CI [0.47, 1.19]) when compared to placebo or usual care. However, the authors demonstrated significant reductions in number of units of red blood cells transfused (25 trials, mean difference -0.55 units; 95% CI [-0.94, -0.15]), total volume of blood loss (33 trials, standardized mean difference - 0.40 standard deviations; 95% CI [-0.56, -0.23]), and the risk of bleeding events (2 trials, RR 0.45; 95% CI [0.24, 0.84]). The certainty of evidence of these findings was generally low.

We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate the effects of peri-procedural desmopressin in patients without known inherited bleeding disorders undergoing surgery or other invasive procedures. We included 63 randomized trials (4163 participants) published up to February 1, 2023. Seven trials were published after a 2017 Cochrane systematic review on this topic. There were 38 trials in cardiac surgery, 22 in noncardiac surgery, and 3 in non-surgical procedures. Meta-analyses demonstrated that desmopressin likely does not reduce the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion (25 trials, risk ratio [RR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86 to 1.05) and may not reduce the risk of reoperation due to bleeding (22 trials, RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.19) when compared to placebo or usual care. However, we demonstrated significant reductions in number of units of red blood cells transfused (25 trials, mean difference -0.55 units, 95% CI - 0.94 to - 0.15), total volume of blood loss (33 trials, standardized mean difference - 0.40 standard deviations; 95% CI - 0.56 to - 0.23), and the risk of bleeding events (2 trials, RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.84). The certainty of evidence of these findings was generally low. Desmopressin increased the risk of clinically significant hypotension that required intervention (19 trials, RR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.41). Limited evidence suggests that tranexamic acid is more effective than desmopressin in reducing transfusion risk (3 trials, RR 2.38 favoring tranexamic acid, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.39) and total volume of blood loss (3 trials, mean difference 391.7 mL favoring tranexamic acid, 95% CI - 93.3 to 876.7 mL). No trials directly informed the safety and hemostatic efficacy of desmopressin in advanced kidney disease. In conclusion, desmopressin likely reduces periprocedural blood loss and the number of units of blood transfused in small trials with methodologic limitations. However, the risk of hypotension needs to be mitigated. Large trials should evaluate desmopressin alongside tranexamic acid and enroll patients with advanced kidney disease.