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Editor's Choice
  • Wang M
  • Che JX
  • Chen L
  • Song TT
  • Qu JT
  • et al.
Chin Med Sci J. 2024 Mar;39(1):54-68 doi: 10.24920/004294.
POPULATION:

Patients undergoing spine surgery (21 randomised controlled trials, n= 1,388).

INTERVENTION:

Dexmedetomidine (Dex).

COMPARISON:

Saline.

OUTCOME:

This meta-analysis revealed a negative effect of Dex on haemodynamics. Dex increased the risk of hypotension and bradycardia during spine surgery, while it did not reduce intraoperative blood loss. The risk of hypotension and bradycardia was higher with the use of a loading dose in combination with a maintenance dose than using a maintenance dose alone. Dex was more likely to cause severe hypotension rather than mild hypotension. In terms of heart rate reduction, the incidence of both mild and severe bradycardia increased.

Objective Dexmedetomidine (Dex) is a highly selective α2 adrenoceptor agonist that reduces blood pressure and heart rate. However, its ability to provide stable hemodynamics and a clinically significant reduction in blood loss in spine surgery is still a matter of debate. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Dex on intraoperative hemodynamics and blood loss in patients undergoing spine surgery.Methods The Web of Science, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched up to February 2023 for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) including patients undergoing spine surgeries under general anaesthesia and comparing Dex and saline. A fixed- or random-effect model was used depending on heterogeneity.Results Twenty-one RCTs, including 1388 patients, were identified. Dex added the overall risk of intraoperative hypotension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.11; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.24 - 3.58; P=0.006) and bradycardia (OR: 2.48; 95%CI: 1.57 - 3.93; P=0.0001). The use of a loading dose of Dex led to significantly increased risks of intraoperative hypotension (OR: 2.00; 95%CI: 1.06 - 3.79; P=0.03) and bradycardia (OR: 2.28; 95%CI: 1.42 - 3.66; P=0.0007). For patients receiving total intravenous anesthesia, there was an increased risk of hypotension (OR: 2.90; 95%CI: 1.24 - 6.82; P=0.01) and bradycardia (OR: 2.66; 95%CI: 1.53 - 4.61; P=0. 0005). For patients in the inhalation anesthesia group, only an increased risk of bradycardia (OR: 4.95; 95%CI: 1.41 - 17.37; P=0.01) was observed. No significant increase in the risk of hypotension and bradycardia was found in the combined intravenous-inhalation anesthesia group. The incidence of severe hypotension (OR: 2.57; 95%CI: 1.05 - 6.32; P=0.04), but not mild hypotension, was increased. Both mild (OR: 2.55; 95%CI: 1.06 - 6.15; P=0.04) and severe (OR: 2.45; 95%CI: 1.43 - 4.20; P=0.001) bradycardia were associated with a higher risk. The overall analyses did not reveal significant reduction in intraoperative blood loss. However, a significant decrease in blood loss was observed in total inhalation anesthesia subgroup (mean difference [MD]: -82.97; 95%CI: -109.04 - -56.90; P<0.001).Conclusions Dex increases the risks of intraoperative hypotension and bradycardia in major spine surgery. The administration of a loading dose of Dex and the utilization of various anesthesia maintenance methods may potentially impact hemodynamic stability and intraoperative blood loss.

Editor's Choice
  • Wang C
  • Lebedeva V
  • Yang J
  • Anih J
  • Park LJ
  • et al.
Perioper Med (Lond). 2024 Jan 23;13(1):5 doi: 10.1186/s13741-023-00358-4.
POPULATION:

Children or adults without known inherited bleeding disorders undergoing surgery or other invasive procedures (63 randomised controlled trials, n= 4,163).

INTERVENTION:

Desmopressin administered intravenously or subcutaneously before, during, or immediately after a surgical or interventional procedure.

COMPARISON:

Placebo, usual care, or antifibrinolytic agents.

OUTCOME:

Meta-analyses demonstrated that desmopressin likely does not reduce the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion (25 trials, risk ratio [RR] 0.95; 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.86, 1.05]) and may not reduce the risk of reoperation due to bleeding (22 trials, RR 0.75; 95% CI [0.47, 1.19]) when compared to placebo or usual care. However, the authors demonstrated significant reductions in number of units of red blood cells transfused (25 trials, mean difference -0.55 units; 95% CI [-0.94, -0.15]), total volume of blood loss (33 trials, standardized mean difference - 0.40 standard deviations; 95% CI [-0.56, -0.23]), and the risk of bleeding events (2 trials, RR 0.45; 95% CI [0.24, 0.84]). The certainty of evidence of these findings was generally low.

We systematically reviewed the literature to investigate the effects of peri-procedural desmopressin in patients without known inherited bleeding disorders undergoing surgery or other invasive procedures. We included 63 randomized trials (4163 participants) published up to February 1, 2023. Seven trials were published after a 2017 Cochrane systematic review on this topic. There were 38 trials in cardiac surgery, 22 in noncardiac surgery, and 3 in non-surgical procedures. Meta-analyses demonstrated that desmopressin likely does not reduce the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion (25 trials, risk ratio [RR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.86 to 1.05) and may not reduce the risk of reoperation due to bleeding (22 trials, RR 0.75, 95% CI 0.47 to 1.19) when compared to placebo or usual care. However, we demonstrated significant reductions in number of units of red blood cells transfused (25 trials, mean difference -0.55 units, 95% CI - 0.94 to - 0.15), total volume of blood loss (33 trials, standardized mean difference - 0.40 standard deviations; 95% CI - 0.56 to - 0.23), and the risk of bleeding events (2 trials, RR 0.45, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.84). The certainty of evidence of these findings was generally low. Desmopressin increased the risk of clinically significant hypotension that required intervention (19 trials, RR 2.15, 95% CI 1.36 to 3.41). Limited evidence suggests that tranexamic acid is more effective than desmopressin in reducing transfusion risk (3 trials, RR 2.38 favoring tranexamic acid, 95% CI 1.06 to 5.39) and total volume of blood loss (3 trials, mean difference 391.7 mL favoring tranexamic acid, 95% CI - 93.3 to 876.7 mL). No trials directly informed the safety and hemostatic efficacy of desmopressin in advanced kidney disease. In conclusion, desmopressin likely reduces periprocedural blood loss and the number of units of blood transfused in small trials with methodologic limitations. However, the risk of hypotension needs to be mitigated. Large trials should evaluate desmopressin alongside tranexamic acid and enroll patients with advanced kidney disease.

Editor's Choice
  • Stangl S
  • Popp M
  • Reis S
  • Sitter M
  • Saal-Bauernschubert L
  • et al.
Syst Rev. 2024 Jan 2;13(1):5 doi: 10.1186/s13643-023-02431-x.
POPULATION:

Patients with iron deficiency or iron deficiency anaemia undergoing major surgery (13 studies: 5 randomised controlled trials and 8 observational studies).

INTERVENTION:

Systematic review to identify and appraise outcomes reported for preoperative or perioperative treatment of iron deficiency, with or without anemia.

COMPARISON:

OUTCOME:

Overall, 111 outcomes were structured into five core areas including nine domains. Most studies (92%) reported outcomes within the 'blood and lymphatic system' domain, followed by ‘adverse event’ (77%) and ‘need for further resources’ (77%). All of the latter reported on the need for blood transfusion. Reported outcomes were heterogeneous in measures and timing. Merely, two (33%) of six prospective studies were registered prospectively of which one (17%) showed no signs of selective outcome reporting.

BACKGROUND:

Iron deficiency (ID) is the leading cause of anemia worldwide. The prevalence of preoperative ID ranges from 23 to 33%. Preoperative anemia is associated with worse outcomes, making it important to diagnose and treat ID before elective surgery. Several studies indicated the effectiveness of intravenous iron supplementation in iron deficiency with or without anemia (ID(A)). However, it remains challenging to establish reliable evidence due to heterogeneity in utilized study outcomes. The development of a core outcome set (COS) can help to reduce this heterogeneity by proposing a minimal set of meaningful and standardized outcomes. The aim of our systematic review was to identify and assess outcomes reported in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies investigating iron supplementation in iron-deficient patients with or without anemia.

METHODS:

We searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, and ClinicalTrials.gov systematically from 2000 to April 1, 2022. RCTs and observational studies investigating iron supplementation in patients with a preoperative diagnosis of ID(A), were included. Study characteristics and reported outcomes were extracted. Outcomes were categorized according to an established outcome taxonomy. Quality of outcome reporting was assessed with a pre-specified tool. Reported clinically relevant differences for sample size calculation were extracted.

RESULTS:

Out of 2898 records, 346 underwent full-text screening and 13 studies (five RCTs, eight observational studies) with sufficient diagnostic inclusion criteria for iron deficiency with or without anemia (ID(A)) were eligible. It is noteworthy to mention that 49 studies were excluded due to no confirmed diagnosis of ID(A). Overall, 111 outcomes were structured into five core areas including nine domains. Most studies (92%) reported outcomes within the 'blood and lymphatic system' domain, followed by "adverse event" (77%) and "need for further resources" (77%). All of the latter reported on the need for blood transfusion. Reported outcomes were heterogeneous in measures and timing. Merely, two (33%) of six prospective studies were registered prospectively of which one (17%) showed no signs of selective outcome reporting.

CONCLUSION:

This systematic review comprehensively depicts the heterogeneity of reported outcomes in studies investigating iron supplementation in ID(A) patients regarding exact definitions and timing. Our analysis provides a systematic base for consenting to a minimal COS.

SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION:

PROSPERO CRD42020214247.

Editor's Choice
  • Alzahrani A
  • Alkofide H
  • Joharji H
  • Korayem GB
  • Aljohani S
  • et al.
Clin Appl Thromb Hemost. 2023 Jan-Dec;29:10760296231218215 doi: 10.1177/10760296231218215.
POPULATION:

Patients undergoing thoracic surgery procedures (3 randomised controlled trials, n= 399).

INTERVENTION:

Topical intrapleural tranexamic acid (TXA).

COMPARISON:

Placebo.

OUTCOME:

The primary outcome of postoperative blood loss at 24 hours was significantly lower in patients who received TXA (mean difference [MD] -93.6 ml; 95% CI [-121.8, -65.4 ml], I(2)= 45%). The need for red blood cell transfusion was significantly lower in the topical TXA group compared to control (MD -0.5 units; 95% CI [-0.8, -0.3 units], I(2)= 60%). There was no significant difference in the hospital length of stay, (MD -0.3 days; 95% CI [-0.9, 0.4 days], I(2)= 0%). These results remained consistent after several sensitivity analyses.

OBJECTIVES:

Bleeding remains a common complication post-thoracic surgery. Although intravenous tranexamic acid (TXA) has been shown to decrease blood loss, its use has been associated with adverse effects. Accordingly, topical TXA has been proposed as an alternative to reduce bleeding with fewer systemic complications.

METHODS:

We searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central databases for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing topical TXA versus control (i.e., placebo) in patients undergoing thoracic procedures. The primary outcome was total postoperative blood loss at 24 hours. Secondary outcomes included were the number of red blood cell (RBC) transfusions, and hospital length of stay (LOS). Meta-analyses were pooled using mean difference with inverse-variance weighting and random-effects.

RESULTS:

Out of the 575 unique studies that were screened, we identified three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) involving 399 patients. Out of the three RCTs analyzed, two studies, accounting for 67% of the total, were found to have a low risk of bias. The primary outcome of 24-h post-operative blood loss was significantly lower in patients who received TXA (mean difference [MD] -93.6 ml, 95% CI -121.8 to -65.4 ml, I2 = 45%). In addition, the need for RBC transfusion was significantly lower in the topical TXA group compared to control (MD -0.5 units, 95% CI -0.8 to -0.3 units, I2 = 60%). However, there was no significant difference in the hospital length of stay (LOS) (MD -0.3 days, 95% CI -0.9 to 0.4 days, I2 = 0%). These results remained consistent after several sensitivity analyses. The use of topical intrapleural tranexamic acid has also been found to be safe without any significant safety concerns.

CONCLUSION:

Topical intrapleural TXA reduces blood loss and the need for blood transfusions during thoracic surgery. In addition, there is no evidence of the increased safety concerns associated with its use. Larger trials are necessary to validate these findings and evaluate the safety and efficacy of different dosages.