4 results
Filters • 4
Sort By
Results Per Page
Filters
4 results
4
Download the following citations:
Email the following citations:
Print the following citations:
Editor's Choice
  • Liu CW
  • Anih J
  • Lebedeva V
  • Gungor A
  • Wang C
  • et al.
J Clin Anesth. 2024 Jun;94:111417 doi: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2024.111417.
POPULATION:

Patients undergoing non-obstetric surgery (300 trials, n= 53,085).

INTERVENTION:

Intravenous tranexamic acid.

COMPARISON:

Placebo or usual care without tranexamic acid.

OUTCOME:

From all the included studies, 45,958 participants (86.6%) were enrolled in 228 trials (76.0%) that explicitly excluded patients with kidney disease. Definitions of kidney diseased used for exclusion varied widely. Most were non-specific and some corresponded to mild disease. Only 5 trials adjusted dosing for kidney function. Meta-analysis of two large trials found tranexamic acid unlikely to substantially increase or decrease the occurrence of thrombotic events in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RR 0.95; 95% CI [0.83, 1.07]) or ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RR 1.00; 95% CI [0.91, 1.11], but both trials excluded patients with severe kidney disease. No analysis could be performed regarding seizure risk. One large trial in non-cardiac surgery reported similar reduction in bleeding across subgroups of kidney function but excluded patients with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min.

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

To assess how kidney disease is handled in randomized trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of perioperative tranexamic acid, and to evaluate its effects across levels of kidney function.

DESIGN:

Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

SETTING:

We screened studies from a previous comprehensive systematic review, and updated its search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL to July 31, 2023.

PATIENTS:

Patients undergoing non-obstetric surgery.

INTERVENTIONS:

Intravenous tranexamic acid compared to placebo or usual care without tranexamic acid.

MEASUREMENT:

We summarized the handling of kidney disease in eligibility criteria, dose adjustments for kidney function, and effects of tranexamic acid on thrombotic events, seizures, and bleeding by subgroups of kidney function.

MAIN RESULTS:

We evaluated 300 trials with 53,085 participants; 45,958 participants (86.6%) were enrolled in 228 trials (76.0%) that explicitly excluded patients with kidney disease. Definitions of kidney diseased used for exclusion varied widely. Most were non-specific and some corresponded to mild disease. Only 5 trials adjusted dosing for kidney function. Meta-analysis of two large trials found tranexamic acid unlikely to substantially increase or decrease the occurrence of thrombotic events in patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (RR, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.07) or ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.11; P for subgroup difference = 0.47), but both trials excluded patients with severe kidney disease. No analysis could be performed regarding seizure risk. One large trial in noncardiac surgery reported similar reduction in bleeding across subgroups of kidney function but excluded patients with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min.

CONCLUSIONS:

The large evidence base supporting perioperative tranexamic acid suffers from broad and unjustified exclusion of patients with kidney disease. Typical perioperative dosing of tranexamic acid is likely safe and effective in patients with creatinine clearance >30 mL/min, but effects in more severe kidney disease are unknown.

Editor's Choice
  • Martens P
  • Augusto SN
  • Mullens W
  • Tang WHW
  • Martens, P.
  • et al.
JACC Heart Fail. 2024 Mar;12(3):525-536 doi: 10.1016/j.jchf.2023.11.006.
POPULATION:

Patients with iron deficiency and heart failure (HF), (14 randomised controlled trials, n= 6,624).

INTERVENTION:

Intravenous iron (n= 3,407).

COMPARISON:

Placebo (n= 3,217).

OUTCOME:

Treatment with intravenous iron resulted in a lower risk for cardiovascular (CV) death (OR: 0.867; 95% CI [0.755, 0.955]), combined CV death and HF admission (OR: 0.838; 95% CI [0.751, 0.936]), first HF admission (OR: 0.855; 95% CI [0.744, 0.983]), and total HF admissions (rate ratio: 0.739; 95% CI [0.661, 0.827]). Significant heterogeneity among trial results was observed for first and total HF admissions. Meta-regression suggested that some of the heterogeneity was related to the baseline transferrin saturation (TSAT) of the enrolled population, with trials enrolling patients with lower TSAT exhibiting a large effect size on HF-related events.

BACKGROUND:

Guidelines recommend that intravenous iron should be considered to improve symptoms of heart failure (HF) and reduce the risk for HF admissions in patients after acute HF.

OBJECTIVES:

This study sought to analyze the effect of intravenous iron on cardiovascular (CV) death and HF admissions in a broad population of HF patients with iron deficiency and the relation with baseline transferrin saturation (TSAT).

METHODS:

A systematic review of all published randomized controlled trials assessing the effect of intravenous iron in patients with iron deficiency and HF between January 1, 2000, and August 26, 2023, was performed. The overall treatment effect was estimated using a fixed effect model for: 1) CV death; 2) CV death and HF admission; 3) first HF admission; and 4) total HF admissions. Metaregression through a mixed effect model was used to explore the impact of baseline TSAT in case of heterogeneity among trial results.

RESULTS:

A total of 14 randomized controlled trials were identified in the systematic review and retained in the meta-analysis. Aggregate-level data were included on 6,624 HF patients, 3,407 of whom were randomized to intravenous iron and 3,217 to placebo. Treatment with intravenous iron resulted in a lower risk for CV death (OR: 0.867 [95% CI: 0.755-0.955]; P = 0.0427), combined CV death and HF admission (OR: 0.838 [95% CI: 0.751-0.936]; P = 0.0015), first HF admission (OR: 0.855 [95% CI: 0.744-0.983]; P = 0.0281), and total HF admissions (rate ratio: 0.739 [95% CI: 0.661-0.827]; P < 0.0001). Significant heterogeneity among trial results was observed for first and total HF admissions. Metaregression suggested that some of the heterogeneity was related to the baseline TSAT of the enrolled population, with trials enrolling patients with lower TSAT exhibiting a large effect size on HF-related events.

CONCLUSIONS:

The totality of data suggests that treatment with intravenous iron reduces both CV death and HF-related events in a broad population with HF. A lower baseline TSAT might be important for the effect on HF-related events.

Editor's Choice
  • Damarlapally N
  • Thimmappa V
  • Irfan H
  • Sikandari M
  • Madhu K
  • et al.
Cureus. 2023 Oct 21;15(10):e47430 doi: 10.7759/cureus.47430.
POPULATION:

Patients with chronic kidney disease regardless of their dialysis status, who also exhibited anaemia (19 randomised controlled trials, n= 22,151).

INTERVENTION:

Hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (HIF-PHIs): roxadustat, daprodustat, and vadadustat (n= 11,234).

COMPARISON:

Erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) (n= 10,917).

OUTCOME:

HIF-PHI yielded a slight but significant increase in change in mean haemoglobin levels (MD 0.06; 95% CI [0.00, 0.11]), with the maximum significant increase shown in roxadustat followed by daprodustat as compared to ESA. There was a significant decrease in efficacy outcomes such as change in mean iron (MD -1.54; 95% CI [-3.01, -0.06]), change in mean hepcidin (MD -21.04; 95% CI [-28.92, -13.17]), change in mean ferritin (MD -16.45; 95% CI [-27.17, -5.73]) with roxadustat showing maximum efficacy followed by daprodustat.

Hypoxia-inducible factor-prolyl hydroxylase domain inhibitors (HIF-PHIs) are a novel group of drugs used to treat renal anemia, but their benefits vary among different trials. Our meta-analysis aims to assess the safety and efficacy of HIF-PHI versus erythropoiesis-stimulating agents (ESA) in managing anemia among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), regardless of their dialysis status. PubMed, Embase, and Google Scholar were queried to discover eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs). To quantify the specific effects of HIF-PHI, we estimated pooled mean differences (MDs) and relative risks (RR) with 95% CIs. Our meta-analysis involved 22,151 CKD patients, with 11,234 receiving HIF-PHI and 10,917 receiving ESA from 19 different RCTs. The HIF-PHI used included roxadustat, daprodustat, and vadadustat. HIF-PHI yielded a slight but significant increase in change in mean hemoglobin (Hb) levels (MD: 0.06, 95% CI (0.00, 0.11); p = 0.03), with the maximum significant increase shown in roxadustat followed by daprodustat as compared to ESA. There was a significant decrease in efficacy outcomes such as change in mean iron (MD: -1.54, 95% CI (-3.01, -0.06); p = 0.04), change in mean hepcidin (MD: -21.04, 95% CI (-28.92, -13.17); p < 0.00001), change in mean ferritin (MD: -16.45, 95% CI (-27.17,-5.73); p = 0.03) with roxadustat showing maximum efficacy followed by daprodustat. As for safety, HIF-PHI showed significantly increased incidence in safety outcomes such as diarrhea (MD: 1.3, 95% CI (1.11, 1.51); p = 0.001), adverse events leading to withdrawal (MD: 2.03, 95% CI (1.5, 2.74), p = 0.00001) among 25 various analyzed outcomes. This meta-analysis indicates that HIF-PHIs present a potentially safer and more effective alternative to ESAs, with increased Hb levels and decreased iron usage in CKD patients without significantly increasing adverse events. Therefore, in these patients, we propose HIF-PHI alongside renal anemia treatment.

Editor's Choice
  • Li L
  • Zheng X
  • Deng J
  • Zhou J
  • Ou J
  • et al.
Ren Fail. 2022 Dec;44(1):1112-1122 doi: 10.1080/0886022X.2022.2094273.
POPULATION:

Chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperphosphataemia and anaemia (16 randomised controlled trials, n= 1,754).

INTERVENTION:

Ferric citrate treatment.

COMPARISON:

Control drugs, including placebo and positive drugs.

OUTCOME:

The meta-analysis showed that ferric citrate could significantly reduce the serum phosphorus in CKD patients compared to the placebo control groups (MD -1.76 mg/dL; 95% CI [-2.78, -0.75]). The difference between ferric citrate treatment and active controls, such as non-iron-based phosphate binders, sevelamer, calcium carbonate, lanthanum carbonate and sodium ferrous citrate, was not statistically significant (MD -0.09 mg/dL; 95% CI [-0.35, 0.17]). Ferric citrate could effectively improve haemoglobin levels when compared to the active drug (MD 0.43 g/dL; 95% CI [0.04, 0.82]) and placebo groups (MD 0.39 g/dL; 95% CI [0.04, 0.73]). According to eight studies, ferric citrate was found to be cost-effective treatment in comparison to control drugs. Most of the adverse events following ferric citrate treatment were mild at most.

BACKGROUND:

Hyperphosphatemia and anemia, which are common complications of chronic kidney disease (CKD), can independently contribute to cardiovascular events. Several previous studies have found that the iron-based phosphate binder, ferric citrate (FC), could be beneficial to both hyperphosphatemia and anemia.

METHODS:

Relevant literature from PUBMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CCRCT) and MEDLINE databases were searched up to 21 February 2022, in order to conduct a meta-analysis to investigate the efficacy, safety and economic benefits of ferric citrate treatment in CKD patients with hyperphosphatemia and anemia. The meta-analysis was conducted independently by two reviewers using the RevMan software (version 5.3).

RESULTS:

In total, this study included 16 randomized clinical trials (RCT) involving 1754 participants. The meta-analysis showed that ferric citrate could significantly reduce the serum phosphorus in CKD patients compared to the placebo control groups (MD -1.76 mg/dL, 95% CI (-2.78, -0.75); p = 0.0007). In contrast, the difference between ferric citrate treatment and active controls, such as non-iron-based phosphate binders, sevelamer, calcium carbonate, lanthanum carbonate and sodium ferrous citrate, was not statistically significant (MD - 0.09 mg/dL, 95% CI (-0.35, 0.17); p = 0.51). However, ferric citrate could effectively improve hemoglobin levels when compared to the active drug (MD 0.43 g/dL, 95% CI (0.04, 0.82); p = 0.03) and placebo groups (MD 0.39 g/dL, 95% CI (0.04, 0.73); p = 0.03). According to eight studies, ferric citrate was found to be cost-effective treatment in comparison to control drugs. Most of the adverse events (AE) following ferric citrate treatment were mild at most.

CONCLUSION:

Collectively, our review suggests that iron-based phosphate binder, ferric citrate is an effective and safe treatment option for CKD patients with hyperphosphatemia and anemia. More importantly, this alternative treatment may also less expensive. Nevertheless, more scientific studies are warranted to validate our findings.