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  • Guo H
  • Liu C
  • Kang L
  • Liu Y
Hematology. 2024 Dec;29(1):2335419 doi: 10.1080/16078454.2024.2335419.
OBJECTIVE:

This article conducts a systematic review of eltrombopag combined with immunosuppressive therapy for the treatment of aplastic anemia (AA), to demonstrate the effectiveness and safety of eltrombopag.

METHODS:

PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, OVID, Web of Science, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, and Wanfang databases were searched. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were collected, ranging from the establishment of the database to August 2023. Two reviewers performed meta-analyses using the Cochrane systematic review method and RevMan 5.3 software.

RESULTS:

This meta-analysis enrolled 5 studies with a total of 542 AA patients, including 274 in the experimental group and 268 in the control group. Meta-analyses were performed for efficacy and adverse reactions. The endpoint of effects included 6-month complete response (CR), 6-month partial response (PR), and 6-month overall response (OR). Eltrombopag combined with immunotherapy showed significant improvements in 6-month CR (OR: 2.20; 95% CI;1.54-3.12; P < 0.0001) and 6-month OR (OR = 3.66, 95% CI 2.39-5.61, P < 0.001)compared to immunosuppressive therapy for AA patients. In terms of safety, eltrombopag combined with immunosuppressive therapy showed significantly increased pigment deposition and abnormal liver function compared to immunosuppressive therapy alone.

CONCLUSION:

Compared to immunosuppressive therapy alone, eltrombopag combined with immunosuppressive therapy showed significant improvements in 6-month CR and 6-month OR. However, it also resulted in increased pigment deposition and abnormal liver function in terms of safety.

  • Wu L
  • Su F
  • Luo P
  • Dong Q
  • Ma M
  • et al.
Platelets. 2024 Dec;35(1):2292612 doi: 10.1080/09537104.2023.2292612.
BACKGROUND:

Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a therapeutic approach that is gaining attention for its potential in the treatment of poor ovarian response. This meta-analysis aimed to systematically review and analyze clinical studies to evaluate the impact of PRP on poor responders undergoing ovarian stimulation for IVF.

METHODS:

A comprehensive search was conducted in electronic databases, including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library to identify relevant studies published in English. The pooled data, such as pregnancy outcome, number of MII oocytes, number of transferable embryos, and ovarian reserve markers were analyzed using R version 4.2.3.

RESULTS:

A total of 10 trials were enrolled in the present meta-analysis. Following PRP treatment, live birth rate was found to be 16.6% (95% CI 8.8%-26.1%), while clinical pregnancy rate was observed to be 25.4% (95% CI 13.1%-39.9%). PRP pretreatment resulted in a higher number of MII oocytes (MD 1.073, 95% CI 0.720 to 1.427), a higher number of embryos (MD 0.946, 95% CI 0.569 to 1.323), a higher antral follicle count (MD 1.117; 95% CI 0.689 to 1.544), and the change of hormone levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

Among the studies evaluated in this review, PRP showed promising results in poor responder. Further research is required to clarify the potential role of PRP in female reproductive health.

Editor's Choice
  • Yassi N
  • Zhao H
  • Churilov L
  • Wu TY
  • Ma H
  • et al.
Lancet Neurol. 2024 Jun;23(6):577-587 doi: 10.1016/S1474-4422(24)00128-5.
POPULATION:

Patients with intracerebral haemorrhage treated within 2 hours of symptom onset, enrolled in the STOP-MSU trial conducted at 24 hospitals and one mobile stroke unit in Australia, Finland, New Zealand, Taiwan, and Viet Nam (n= 201).

INTERVENTION:

Tranexamic acid (n= 103).

COMPARISON:

Placebo (n= 98).

OUTCOME:

Haematoma growth occurred in 37 (38%) of 97 assessable participants in the placebo group and 43 (43%) of 101 assessable participants in the tranexamic acid group (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 1.31; 95% CI [0.72, 2.40]). Major thromboembolic events occurred in one (1%) of 98 participants in the placebo group and three (3%) of 103 in the tranexamic acid group (risk difference 0.02 95% CI [-0.02, 0.06]). By 7 days, eight (8%) participants in the placebo group and eight (8%) in the tranexamic acid group had died (aOR 1.08 95% CI [0.35, 3.35]) and by 90 days, 15 (15%) participants in the placebo group and 19 (18%) in the tranexamic acid group had died (aOR 1.61; 95% CI [0.65, 3.98]).

BACKGROUND:

Tranexamic acid, an antifibrinolytic agent, might attenuate haematoma growth after an intracerebral haemorrhage. We aimed to determine whether treatment with intravenous tranexamic acid within 2 h of an intracerebral haemorrhage would reduce haematoma growth compared with placebo.

METHODS:

STOP-MSU was an investigator-led, double-blind, randomised, phase 2 trial conducted at 24 hospitals and one mobile stroke unit in Australia, Finland, New Zealand, Taiwan, and Viet Nam. Eligible participants had acute spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage confirmed on non-contrast CT, were aged 18 years or older, and could be treated with the investigational product within 2 h of stroke onset. Using randomly permuted blocks (block size of 4) and a concealed pre-randomised assignment procedure, participants were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive intravenous tranexamic acid (1 g over 10 min followed by 1 g over 8 h) or placebo (saline; matched dosing regimen) commencing within 2 h of symptom onset. Participants, investigators, and treating teams were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was haematoma growth, defined as either at least 33% relative growth or at least 6 mL absolute growth on CT at 24 h (target range 18-30 h) from the baseline CT. The analysis was conducted within the estimand framework with primary analyses adhering to the intention-to-treat principle. The primary endpoint and secondary safety endpoints (mortality at days 7 and 90 and major thromboembolic events at day 90) were assessed in all participants randomly assigned to treatment groups who did not withdraw consent to use any data. This study was registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03385928, and the trial is now complete.

FINDINGS:

Between March 19, 2018, and Feb 27, 2023, 202 participants were recruited, of whom one withdrew consent for any data use. The remaining 201 participants were randomly assigned to either placebo (n=98) or tranexamic acid (n=103; intention-to-treat population). Median age was 66 years (IQR 55-77), and 82 (41%) were female and 119 (59%) were male; no data on race or ethnicity were collected. CT scans at baseline or follow-up were missing or of inadequate quality in three participants (one in the placebo group and two in the tranexamic acid group), and were considered missing at random. Haematoma growth occurred in 37 (38%) of 97 assessable participants in the placebo group and 43 (43%) of 101 assessable participants in the tranexamic acid group (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1·31 [95% CI 0·72 to 2·40], p=0·37). Major thromboembolic events occurred in one (1%) of 98 participants in the placebo group and three (3%) of 103 in the tranexamic acid group (risk difference 0·02 [95% CI -0·02 to 0·06]). By 7 days, eight (8%) participants in the placebo group and eight (8%) in the tranexamic acid group had died (aOR 1·08 [95% CI 0·35 to 3·35]) and by 90 days, 15 (15%) participants in the placebo group and 19 (18%) in the tranexamic acid group had died (aOR 1·61 [95% CI 0·65 to 3·98]).

INTERPRETATION:

Intravenous tranexamic acid did not reduce haematoma growth when administered within 2 h of intracerebral haemorrhage symptom onset. There were no observed effects on other imaging endpoints, functional outcome, or safety. Based on our results, tranexamic acid should not be used routinely in primary intracerebral haemorrhage, although results of ongoing phase 3 trials will add further context to these findings.

FUNDING:

Australian Government Medical Research Future Fund.

Editor's Choice
  • Brown AN
  • Yendluri A
  • Lawrence KW
  • Cordero JK
  • Moucha CS
  • et al.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 2024 Jun 1;32(11):508-515 doi: 10.5435/JAAOS-D-23-00503.
POPULATION:

Patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery (108 randomised controlled trials).

INTERVENTION:

Tranexamic acid (TXA).

COMPARISON:

Placebo/control; other antifibrinolytic/clotting agents; TXA with a different dose or route of administration.

OUTCOME:

A total of 192 outcomes were reported across the 108 included studies. The median fragility index (FI) of the 192 outcomes was 4 (IQR= 2, 5) with an associated fragility quotient (FQ) of 0.03 (IQR= 0.019, 0.050). 45 outcomes were reported as statistically significant with a median FI of 1 (IQR= 1, 5) and associated FQ of 0.02 (IQR= 0.011, 0.034). 147 outcomes were reported as nonsignificant with a median reverse fragility index of 4 (IQR= 3, 5) and associated FQ of 0.04 (IQR= 0.023, 0.051). The adult reconstruction, trauma, and spine subspecialties had a median FI of 4. Sports had a median FI of 3. Shoulder and elbow and foot and ankle had median FIs of 6.

INTRODUCTION:

Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) represent the highest level of evidence in orthopaedic surgery literature, although the robustness of statistical findings in these trials may be unreliable. We used the fragility index (FI), reverse fragility index (rFI), and fragility quotient (FQ) to evaluate the statistical stability of outcomes reported in RCTs that assess the use of tranexamic acid (TXA) across orthopaedic subspecialties.

METHODS:

PubMed, EMBASE, and MEDLINE were queried for RCTs (2010-present) reporting dichotomous outcomes with study groups stratified by TXA administration. The FI and rFI were defined as the number of outcome event reversals needed to alter the significance level of significant and nonsignificant outcomes, respectively. FQ was determined by dividing the FI or rFI by sample size. Subgroup analyses were conducted based on orthopaedic subspecialty.

RESULTS:

Six hundred five RCTs were screened with 108 studies included for analysis comprising 192 total outcomes. The median FI of the 192 outcomes was 4 (IQR 2 to 5) with an associated FQ of 0.03 (IQR 0.019 to 0.050). 45 outcomes were reported as statistically significant with a median FI of 1 (IQR 1 to 5) and associated FQ of 0.02 (IQR 0.011 to 0.034). 147 outcomes were reported as nonsignificant with a median rFI of 4 (IQR 3 to 5) and associated FQ of 0.04 (IQR 0.023 to 0.051). The adult reconstruction, trauma, and spine subspecialties had a median FI of 4. Sports had a median FI of 3. Shoulder and elbow and foot and ankle had median FIs of 6.

DISCUSSION:

Statistical outcomes reported in RCTs on the use of TXA in orthopaedic surgery are fragile. Reversal of a few outcomes is sufficient to alter statistical significance. We recommend reporting FI, rFI, and FQ metrics to aid in interpreting the outcomes reported in comparative trials.

Editor's Choice
  • Balasubramanian H
  • Bhanushali M
  • Tripathi V
  • Srinivasan L
  • Sakharkar S
  • et al.
J Pediatr. 2024 Jun;269:114002 doi: 10.1016/j.jpeds.2024.114002.
POPULATION:

Infants born extremely preterm (n= 102).

INTERVENTION:

Restricted blood sampling approach (n= 52).

COMPARISON:

Conventional blood sampling approach (n= 50).

OUTCOME:

The primary outcome was the rate of early red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the first six postnatal weeks. Fidelity to the sampling protocol was achieved in 95% of the infants. Sampling losses in the first six weeks were significantly lower in the restricted sampling group (16.8 ml/kg versus 23.6 ml/kg). The restricted sampling group had a significantly lower rate of early postnatal RBC transfusion (41% versus 73%, RR 0.56; 95% CI [0.39, 0.81]). The hazard of needing a transfusion during neonatal intensive care unit stay was reduced by 55% by restricted sampling. Mortality and neonatal morbidities were similar between the two groups.

OBJECTIVE:

To evaluate the effect of blood sampling stewardship on transfusion requirements among infants born extremely preterm.

STUDY DESIGN:

In this single-center, randomized controlled trial (RCT), infants born at <28 weeks of gestation and birth weight of <1000 g were randomized at 24 hours of age to two different blood sampling approaches: restricted sampling (RS) vs conventional sampling (CS). The stewardship intervention in the RS group included targeted reduction in blood sampling volume and frequency and point of care testing methods in the first 6 weeks after birth. Both groups received early recombinant erythropoietin from day three of age. Primary outcome was the rate of early red blood cell (RBC) transfusions in the first six postnatal weeks.

RESULTS:

A total of 102 infants (mean gestational age: 26 weeks; birth weight: 756 g) were enrolled. Fidelity to the sampling protocol was achieved in 95% of the infants. Sampling losses in the first 6 weeks were significantly lower in the RS group (16.8 ml/kg vs 23.6 ml/kg, P < .001). The RS group had a significantly lower rate of early postnatal RBC transfusions (41% vs 73%, RR: 0.56 [0.39-0.81], P = .001). The hazard of needing a transfusion during neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) stay was reduced by 55% by RS. Mortality and neonatal morbidities were similar between the two groups.

CONCLUSION:

Minimization of blood sampling losses by approximately one-third in the first 6 weeks after birth leads to substantial reduction in the early red blood cell transfusion rate in infants born extremely preterm and weighing <1000 g at birth.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

http://www.ctri.nic.in (CTRI/2020/01/022  964).

Editor's Choice
  • Liu CW
  • Anih J
  • Lebedeva V
  • Gungor A
  • Wang C
  • et al.
J Clin Anesth. 2024 Jun;94:111417 doi: 10.1016/j.jclinane.2024.111417.
POPULATION:

Patients undergoing non-obstetric surgery (300 trials, n= 53,085).

INTERVENTION:

Intravenous tranexamic acid.

COMPARISON:

Placebo or usual care without tranexamic acid.

OUTCOME:

From all the included studies, 45,958 participants (86.6%) were enrolled in 228 trials (76.0%) that explicitly excluded patients with kidney disease. Definitions of kidney diseased used for exclusion varied widely. Most were non-specific and some corresponded to mild disease. Only 5 trials adjusted dosing for kidney function. Meta-analysis of two large trials found tranexamic acid unlikely to substantially increase or decrease the occurrence of thrombotic events in patients with estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RR 0.95; 95% CI [0.83, 1.07]) or ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m(2) (RR 1.00; 95% CI [0.91, 1.11], but both trials excluded patients with severe kidney disease. No analysis could be performed regarding seizure risk. One large trial in non-cardiac surgery reported similar reduction in bleeding across subgroups of kidney function but excluded patients with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min.

STUDY OBJECTIVE:

To assess how kidney disease is handled in randomized trials evaluating the safety and efficacy of perioperative tranexamic acid, and to evaluate its effects across levels of kidney function.

DESIGN:

Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

SETTING:

We screened studies from a previous comprehensive systematic review, and updated its search of PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane CENTRAL to July 31, 2023.

PATIENTS:

Patients undergoing non-obstetric surgery.

INTERVENTIONS:

Intravenous tranexamic acid compared to placebo or usual care without tranexamic acid.

MEASUREMENT:

We summarized the handling of kidney disease in eligibility criteria, dose adjustments for kidney function, and effects of tranexamic acid on thrombotic events, seizures, and bleeding by subgroups of kidney function.

MAIN RESULTS:

We evaluated 300 trials with 53,085 participants; 45,958 participants (86.6%) were enrolled in 228 trials (76.0%) that explicitly excluded patients with kidney disease. Definitions of kidney diseased used for exclusion varied widely. Most were non-specific and some corresponded to mild disease. Only 5 trials adjusted dosing for kidney function. Meta-analysis of two large trials found tranexamic acid unlikely to substantially increase or decrease the occurrence of thrombotic events in patients with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73m2 (RR, 0.95; 95% CI: 0.83 to 1.07) or ≥ 60 mL/min/1.73m2 (RR, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.91 to 1.11; P for subgroup difference = 0.47), but both trials excluded patients with severe kidney disease. No analysis could be performed regarding seizure risk. One large trial in noncardiac surgery reported similar reduction in bleeding across subgroups of kidney function but excluded patients with creatinine clearance <30 mL/min.

CONCLUSIONS:

The large evidence base supporting perioperative tranexamic acid suffers from broad and unjustified exclusion of patients with kidney disease. Typical perioperative dosing of tranexamic acid is likely safe and effective in patients with creatinine clearance >30 mL/min, but effects in more severe kidney disease are unknown.

  • Dizdar SK
  • Doğan U
  • Ece M
  • Kaya KS
  • Seyhun N
  • et al.
Auris Nasus Larynx. 2024 Jun;51(3):437-442 doi: 10.1016/j.anl.2023.12.003.
OBJECTIVE(S):

Our aim is to investigate the effects of the submucoperichondrial application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) on nasal mucosal healing after septoplasty surgery.

METHOD(S):

This prospective randomized observational study was conducted between July 2019 and February 2021, with 40 patients aged 18-60 years who underwent closed the only septoplasty operation for similar septal deviations. Patient divided into two group; 21 patients were placed in PRP group to which PRP was applied on all mucosal surface and submucoperichondrial area of septum and 19 patients were placed in control group to which saline solution was applied on same regions. Nasal obstruction score, mucociliary clearance time, presence of nasal crusting, and bleeding time were evaluated on 5th, 10th, 15th day after surgery and compared between groups.

RESULTS:

Intranasal crusting on day 10 was found to be lower in the PRP group (n:13 68.4 %) than control group (n:7 33.3 %) with a statistically significant difference (p = 0.028). The nasal obstruction score on day 10 and 15 were found to be lower in the PRP group (3,33 ± 2,75, 2,07 ± 2,20) (than the control group (5,44 ± 2,26, 3,37 ± 1,92) with a statistically significant difference (p = 0,003,p = 0,009). The mucociliary clearance rate was found to be higher and the bleeding time was found to be lower in the PRP group, but a statistically significant difference was not observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

Application of submucoperichondrial PRP could have beneficial effects on nasal mucosal repair, nasal crusting, and congestion after septoplasty surgery.

  • Khawaja T
  • Kajova M
  • Levonen I
  • Pietilä JP
  • Välimaa H
  • et al.
Infect Dis (Lond). 2024 Jun;56(6):423-433 doi: 10.1080/23744235.2024.2329957.
INTRODUCTION:

Convalescent plasma (CP) emerged as potential treatment for COVID-19 early in the pandemic. While efficacy in hospitalised patients has been lacklustre, CP may be beneficial at the first stages of disease. Despite multiple new variants emerging, no trials have involved analyses on variant-specific antibody titres of CP.

METHODS:

We recruited hospitalised COVID-19 patients within 10 days of symptom onset and, employing a double-blinded approach, randomised them to receive 200 ml convalescent plasma with high (HCP) or low (LCP) neutralising antibody (NAb) titre against the ancestral strain (Wuhan-like variant) or placebo in 1:1:1 ratio. Primary endpoints comprised intubation, corticosteroids for symptom aggravation, and safety assessed as serious adverse events. For a preplanned ad hoc analysis, the patients were regrouped by infused CP's NAb titers to variants infecting the recipients i.e. by titres of homologous HCP (hHCP) or LCP (hLCP).

RESULTS:

Of the 57 patients, 18 received HCP, 19 LCP and 20 placebo, all groups smaller than planned. No significant differences were found for primary endpoints. In ad hoc analysis, hHCPrecipients needed significantly less respiratory support, and appeared to be given corticosteroids less frequently (1/14; 7.1%) than those receiving hLCP (9/23; 39.1%) or placebo (8/20; 40%), (p = 0.077).

DISCUSSION:

Our double-blinded, placebo-controlled CP therapy trial remained underpowered and does not allow any firm conclusions for early-stage hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Interestingly, however, regrouping by homologous - recipients' variant-specific - CP titres suggested benefits for hHCP. We encourage similar re-analysis of ongoing/previous larger CP studies.

TRIAL REGISTRATION:

ClinTrials.gov identifier: NCT0473040.

  • Short V
  • Allen R
  • Earley CJ
  • Bahrain H
  • Rineer S
  • et al.
Am J Hematol. 2024 Jun;99(6):1077-1083 doi: 10.1002/ajh.27290.

Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a neurological disorder that can have a profound effect on sleep and quality of life. Idiopathic RLS is associated with brain iron insufficiency despite normal peripheral iron stores. There is, however, a five- to six-fold increase in prevalence of RLS in patients with iron deficiency anemia (IDA). Several open-label trials have demonstrated symptomatic improvement in RLS following treatment of IDA using oral or intravenous iron supplementation. To date, there have been no randomized double-blind controlled trials of intravenous iron compared with oral iron for the treatment of RLS patients with IDA. In the current study, oral ferrous sulfate and ferumoxytol were compared for efficacy and speed of response for treatment of RLS occurring in patients with IDA. The planned recruitment for this study was 70 patients with RLS and IDA, to be randomly assigned 1:1 to oral or intravenous iron, using double-blind, double-dummy procedures. At Week 6, the primary outcomes of Clinical Global Impression-Improvement score and change from baseline in the International Restless Legs Syndrome Study Group rating scale score were assessed. Due to challenges, performing the clinical trial during the COVID-19 pandemic, final-week data were found missing for 30 patients. As a result, in order to maintain the prespecified statistical analysis, an additional 30 patients were recruited. Both IV and oral iron were associated with a marked improvement in RLS symptoms, with no statistically significant difference between treatment groups. No serious adverse events were observed in either treatment group.

  • Cui Y
  • Mai Y
  • Liu X
  • Mu H
Eur J Oral Sci. 2024 Jun;132(3):e12978 doi: 10.1111/eos.12978.

This study aimed to compare clinical benefits of autologous platelet concentrate with other periodontal regenerative approaches in intrabony defects. An electronic and hand search of studies up to December 2022 was conducted. Randomized controlled trials with at least 6 months of follow-up were identified to compare autologous platelet concentrates with enamel matrix derivative, bone graft, guided tissue regeneration, and open-flap debridement. All approaches involved papilla preservation flap surgery. The outcomes included probing depth reduction, clinical attachment level gain, linear bone fill, and safety. A network meta-analysis and meta-regression were performed. Fifty-seven studies were included in five network meta-analyses. Autologous platelets concentrate and its adjunct treatments achieved significantly greater clinical and radiographic parameters than did open-flap debridement, and had comparable or better performance than other regenerative treatments. Platelet-rich fibrin showed superiority over platelet-rich plasma in probing depth reduction at 6-month follow-up. Minimal pain and improved wound healing were observed in the treatments with autologous platelet concentrate. Meta-regression showed that deeper baseline intrabony defects resulted in larger probing depth reductions, while smoking impaired the effectiveness of regenerative surgeries. Minimal invasive flap designs led to less effect of regenerative materials. Autologous platelet concentrate is a promising biomaterial in periodontal regeneration due to its convenience, safety, and biocompatibility characteristics.