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  • Brand M
  • Prodehl L
  • Ede CJ
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Oct 31;10(10):CD001023 doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD001023.pub3.
BACKGROUND:

Variceal haemorrhage that is refractory or recurs after pharmacologic and endoscopic therapy requires a portal decompression shunt (either surgical shunts or radiologic shunt, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)). TIPS has become the shunt of choice; however, is it the preferred option? This review assesses evidence for the comparisons of surgical portosystemic shunts versus TIPS for variceal haemorrhage in people with cirrhotic portal hypertension.

OBJECTIVES:

To assess the benefits and harms of surgical portosystemic shunts versus transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for treatment of refractory or recurrent variceal haemorrhage in people with cirrhotic portal hypertension.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched the Cochrane Hepato-Biliary Group Controlled Trials Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, LILACS, Science Citation Index Expanded, and Conference Proceedings Citation Index - Science. We also searched on-line trial registries, reference lists of relevant articles, and proceedings of relevant associations for trials that met the inclusion criteria for this review (date of search 8 March 2018).

SELECTION CRITERIA:

Randomised clinical trials comparing surgical portosystemic shunts versus TIPS for the treatment of refractory or recurrent variceal haemorrhage in people with cirrhotic portal hypertension.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

Two review authors independently assessed trials and extracted data using methodological standards expected by Cochrane. We assessed risk of bias according to domains and risk of random errors with Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA). We assessed the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach.

MAIN RESULTS:

We found four randomised clinical trials including 496 adult participants diagnosed with variceal haemorrhage due to cirrhotic portal hypertension. The overall risk of bias in all the trials was judged at high risk. All the trials were conducted in the United States of America (USA). Two of the trials randomised participants to selective surgical shunts versus TIPS. The other two trials randomised participants to non-selective surgical shunts versus TIPS. The diagnosis of liver cirrhosis was by clinical and laboratory findings. We are uncertain whether there is a difference in all-cause mortality at 30 days between surgical portosystemic shunts compared with TIPS (risk ratio (RR) 0.94, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.44 to 1.99; participants = 496; studies = 4). We are uncertain whether there is a difference in encephalopathy between surgical shunts compared with TIPS (RR 0.56, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.16; participants = 496; studies = 4). We found evidence suggesting an increase in the occurrence of the following harms in the TIPS group compared with surgical shunts: all-cause mortality at five years (RR 0.61, 95% CI 0.42 to 0.90; participants = 496; studies = 4); variceal rebleeding (RR 0.18, 95% CI 0.07 to 0.49; participants = 496; studies = 4); reinterventions (RR 0.13, 95% CI 0.06 to 0.28; participants = 496; studies = 4); and shunt occlusion (RR 0.14, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.51; participants = 496; studies = 4). We could not perform an analysis of health-related quality of life but available evidence appear to suggest improved health-related quality of life in people who received surgical shunt compared with TIPS. We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for all-cause mortality at 30 days and five years, irreversible shunt occlusion, and encephalopathy to very low because of high risk of bias (due to lack of blinding); inconsistency (due to heterogeneity); imprecision (due to small sample sizes of the individual trials and few events); and publication bias (few trials reporting outcomes). We downgraded the certainty of the evidence for variceal rebleeding and reintervention to very low because of high risk of bias (due to lack of blinding); imprecision (due to small sample sizes of the individual trials and few events); and publication bias (few trials reporting outcomes). The small sample sizes and few events did not allow us to produce meaningful trial sequential monitoring boundaries, suggesting plausible random errors in our estimates.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

We found evidence suggesting that surgical portosystemic shunts may have benefit over TIPS for treatment of refractory or recurrent variceal haemorrhage in people with cirrhotic portal hypertension. Given the very low-certainty of the available evidence and risks of random errors in our analyses, we have very little confidence in our review findings.

  • So-Osman C
  • Nelissen RG
  • Koopman-van Gemert AW
  • Kluyver E
  • Pöll RG
  • et al.
Anesthesiology. 2014 Apr;120(4):852-60 doi: 10.1097/ALN.0000000000000135.
BACKGROUND:

Patient blood management is introduced as a new concept that involves the combined use of transfusion alternatives. In elective adult total hip- or knee-replacement surgery patients, the authors conducted a large randomized study on the integrated use of erythropoietin, cell saver, and/or postoperative drain reinfusion devices (DRAIN) to evaluate allogeneic erythrocyte use, while applying a restrictive transfusion threshold. Patients with a preoperative hemoglobin level greater than 13 g/dl were ineligible for erythropoietin and evaluated for the effect of autologous blood reinfusion.

METHODS:

Patients were randomized between autologous reinfusion by cell saver or DRAIN or no blood salvage device. Primary outcomes were mean intra- and postoperative erythrocyte use and proportion of transfused patients (transfusion rate). Secondary outcome was cost-effectiveness.

RESULTS:

In 1,759 evaluated total hip- and knee-replacement surgery patients, the mean erythrocyte use was 0.19 (SD, 0.9) erythrocyte units/patient in the autologous group (n = 1,061) and 0.22 (0.9) erythrocyte units/patient in the control group (n = 698) (P = 0.64). The transfusion rate was 7.7% in the autologous group compared with 8.3% in the control group (P = 0.19). No difference in erythrocyte use was found between cell saver and DRAIN groups. Costs were increased by €298 per patient (95% CI, 76 to 520).

CONCLUSION:

In patients with preoperative hemoglobin levels greater than 13 g/dl, autologous intra- and postoperative blood salvage devices were not effective as transfusion alternatives: use of these devices did not reduce erythrocyte use and increased costs.

  • Kamphuis MM
  • Paridaans N
  • Porcelijn L
  • De Haas M
  • Van Der Schoot CE
  • et al.
BJOG. 2010 Oct;117(11):1335-43 doi: 10.1111/j.1471-0528.2010.02657.x.
BACKGROUND:

  Fetal and neonatal alloimmune thrombocytopenia (FNAIT) is a potentially devastating disease, which may lead to intracranial haemorrhage (ICH), with neurological damage as a consequence. In the absence of screening, FNAIT is only diagnosed after bleeding symptoms, with preventive options limited to a next pregnancy.

OBJECTIVES:

  To estimate the population incidence of FNAIT and its consequences to prepare for study design of a screening programme.

SEARCH STRATEGY:

  An electronic literature search using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane database, and references of retrieved articles. No language restrictions were applied.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

  Prospective studies on screening for human platelet antigen 1a (HPA-1a) alloimmunisation in low-risk pregnant women.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

  Two reviewers independently assessed studies for inclusion and extracted data. Main outcome data were prevalence of HPA-1a negativity, HPA-1a immunisation, platelet count at birth and perinatal ICH. We aimed to compare outcome with and without intervention.

MAIN RESULTS:

  HPA-1a alloimmunisation occurred in 294/3028 (9.7%) pregnancies at risk. Severe FNAIT occurred in 71/227 (31%) immunised pregnancies, with perinatal ICH in 7/71 (10%). True natural history data were not found because interventions were performed in most screen-positive women.

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

  Screening for HPA-1a alloimmunisation detects about two cases in 1000 pregnancies. The calculated risk for perinatal ICH of 10% in pregnancies with severe FNAIT is an underestimation because studies without interventions were lacking. Screening of all pregnancies together with effective antenatal treatment such as intravenous immunoglobulin may reduce the mortality and morbidity associated with FNAIT.