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  • Zhong C
  • Chen J
  • Yan Z
  • Xia R
  • Zeng W
  • et al.
Transpl Immunol. 2023 Dec;81:101953 doi: 10.1016/j.trim.2023.101953.
BACKGROUND:

The selection of antiviral therapy for BK polyomavirus (BKPyV) infection has been extensively debated. Our study aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of various treatments for BKPyV infection.

METHODS:

We searched PubMed, EMBASE, and Web of Science databases for relevant studies regarding drug treatments for BKPyV viremia/DNAemia published between January 1, 1970 and September 30, 2022. Two independent authors screened the published studies, extracted pertinent data, and evaluated their methodological quality. A meta-analysis was performed using the RevMan software version 4.2.2.

RESULTS:

A total of 33 published studies involving 986 patients were included in the meta-analysis. Overall, therapeutic interventions comprised immunosuppression reduction alone or in combination with leflunomide, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), cidofovir, or mTOR inhibitor (mTORi) therapy. The meta-analysis revealed that the efficacy of immunosuppression reduction alone for serum BKPyV clearance was 68% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.58-0.77; I2 = 78%). Moreover, the efficacy of immunosuppression reduction in combination with leflunomide, cidofovir, IVIG, or mTORi therapy for serum BKPyV clearance was 61% (95% CI: 0.47-0.74; I2 = 83%), 71% (95% CI: 0.63-0.78; I2 = 0), 87% (95% CI: 0.82-0.93; I2 = 45%), and 80% (95% CI: 0.59-1.00; I2 = 58%), respectively. Compared to immunosuppression reduction alone, immunosuppression reduction combined with IVIG therapy offered a statistically significant benefit in serum BKPyV clearance (P < 0.01) with minimal adverse reactions, whereas other adjunctive drug treatments did not demonstrate considerable effects.

CONCLUSIONS:

Reducing immunosuppression remains the primary approach for treating BKPyV infection. Although the combination treatment with IVIG proved to be most effective, other agents might offer varied antiviral advantages of high heterogeneity, which should be substantiated in future long-term randomized controlled trials.

Editor's Choice
  • Eilertsen H
  • Menon CS
  • Law ZK
  • Chen C
  • Bath PM
  • et al.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2023 Oct 23;10(10):CD005951 doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD005951.pub5.
POPULATION:

Adults with acute spontaneous intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH), (20 randomised controlled trials (RCTs), n= 4,652).

INTERVENTION:

Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa), antifibrinolytic drugs, platelet transfusion, prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC).

COMPARISON:

Placebo, standard care, or an active comparator.

OUTCOME:

This systematic review was an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006, and last updated in 2018. Of the 20 included studies, 9 nine RCTs compared rFVIIa vs. placebo/standard care (n= 1,549), 8 RCTs compared antifibrinolytic drugs vs. placebo/standard care (n= 2,866), 1 RCT compared platelet transfusion vs. standard care (n= 190), and 2 RCTs compared PCC vs. fresh frozen plasma (FFP), (n= 47). Four (20%) RCTs were at low risk of bias in all criteria. The authors concluded that rFVIIa likely results in little to no difference in reducing death or dependence after spontaneous ICH with or without surgery; antifibrinolytic drugs result in little to no difference in reducing death or dependence after spontaneous ICH, but result in a slight reduction in ICH expansion within 24 hours; platelet transfusion likely increases death or dependence after antiplatelet-associated ICH; and the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of PCC compared to FFP on death or dependence after anticoagulant-associated ICH.

BACKGROUND:

Outcome after acute spontaneous (non-traumatic) intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) is influenced by haematoma volume. ICH expansion occurs in about 20% of people with acute ICH. Early haemostatic therapy might improve outcome by limiting ICH expansion. This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2006, and last updated in 2018.

OBJECTIVES:

To examine 1. the effects of individual classes of haemostatic therapies, compared with placebo or open control, in adults with acute spontaneous ICH, and 2. the effects of each class of haemostatic therapy according to the use and type of antithrombotic drug before ICH onset.

SEARCH METHODS:

We searched the Cochrane Stroke Trials Register, CENTRAL (2022, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid, and Embase Ovid on 12 September 2022. To identify further published, ongoing, and unpublished randomised controlled trials (RCTs), we scanned bibliographies of relevant articles and searched international registers of RCTs in September 2022.

SELECTION CRITERIA:

We included RCTs of any haemostatic intervention (i.e. procoagulant treatments such as clotting factor concentrates, antifibrinolytic drugs, platelet transfusion, or agents to reverse the action of antithrombotic drugs) for acute spontaneous ICH, compared with placebo, open control, or an active comparator.

DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS:

We used standard Cochrane methods. Our primary outcome was death/dependence (modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 4 to 6) by day 90. Secondary outcomes were ICH expansion on brain imaging after 24 hours, all serious adverse events, thromboembolic adverse events, death from any cause, quality of life, mood, cognitive function, Barthel Index score, and death or dependence measured on the Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale by day 90.

MAIN RESULTS:

We included 20 RCTs involving 4652 participants: nine RCTs of recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) versus placebo/open control (1549 participants), eight RCTs of antifibrinolytic drugs versus placebo/open control (2866 participants), one RCT of platelet transfusion versus open control (190 participants), and two RCTs of prothrombin complex concentrates (PCC) versus fresh frozen plasma (FFP) (47 participants). Four (20%) RCTs were at low risk of bias in all criteria. For rFVIIa versus placebo/open control for spontaneous ICH with or without surgery there was little to no difference in death/dependence by day 90 (risk ratio (RR) 0.88, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.74 to 1.05; 7 RCTs, 1454 participants; low-certainty evidence). We found little to no difference in ICH expansion between groups (RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.16; 4 RCTs, 220 participants; low-certainty evidence). There was little to no difference in all serious adverse events and death from any cause between groups (all serious adverse events: RR 0.81, 95% CI 0.30 to 2.22; 2 RCTs, 87 participants; very low-certainty evidence; death from any cause: RR 0.78, 95% CI 0.56 to 1.08; 8 RCTs, 1544 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). For antifibrinolytic drugs versus placebo/open control for spontaneous ICH, there was no difference in death/dependence by day 90 (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.07; 5 RCTs, 2683 participants; high-certainty evidence). We found a slight reduction in ICH expansion with antifibrinolytic drugs for spontaneous ICH compared to placebo/open control (RR 0.86, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.96; 8 RCTs, 2866 participants; high-certainty evidence). There was little to no difference in all serious adverse events and death from any cause between groups (all serious adverse events: RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.39; 4 RCTs, 2599 participants; high-certainty evidence; death from any cause: RR 1.02, 95% CI 0.89 to 1.18; 8 RCTs, 2866 participants; high-certainty evidence). There was little to no difference in quality of life, mood, or cognitive function (quality of life: mean difference (MD) 0, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.03; 2 RCTs, 2349 participants; mood: MD 0.30, 95% CI -1.98 to 2.57; 2 RCTs, 2349 participants; cognitive function: MD -0.37, 95% CI -1.40 to 0.66; 1 RCTs, 2325 participants; all high-certainty evidence). Platelet transfusion likely increases death/dependence by day 90 compared to open control for antiplatelet-associated ICH (RR 1.29, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.61; 1 RCT, 190 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). We found little to no difference in ICH expansion between groups (RR 1.32, 95% CI 0.91 to 1.92; 1 RCT, 153 participants; moderate-certainty evidence). There was little to no difference in all serious adverse events and death from any cause between groups (all serious adverse events: RR 1.46, 95% CI 0.98 to 2.16; 1 RCT, 190 participants; death from any cause: RR 1.42, 95% CI 0.88 to 2.28; 1 RCT, 190 participants; both moderate-certainty evidence). For PCC versus FFP for anticoagulant-associated ICH, the evidence was very uncertain about the effect on death/dependence by day 90, ICH expansion, all serious adverse events, and death from any cause between groups (death/dependence by day 90: RR 1.21, 95% CI 0.76 to 1.90; 1 RCT, 37 participants; ICH expansion: RR 0.54, 95% CI 0.23 to 1.22; 1 RCT, 36 participants; all serious adverse events: RR 0.27, 95% CI 0.02 to 3.74; 1 RCT, 5 participants; death from any cause: RR 0.49, 95% CI 0.16 to 1.56; 2 RCTs, 42 participants; all very low-certainty evidence).

AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS:

In this updated Cochrane Review including 20 RCTs involving 4652 participants, rFVIIa likely results in little to no difference in reducing death or dependence after spontaneous ICH with or without surgery; antifibrinolytic drugs result in little to no difference in reducing death or dependence after spontaneous ICH, but result in a slight reduction in ICH expansion within 24 hours; platelet transfusion likely increases death or dependence after antiplatelet-associated ICH; and the evidence is very uncertain about the effect of PCC compared to FFP on death or dependence after anticoagulant-associated ICH. Thirteen RCTs are ongoing and are likely to increase the certainty of the estimates of treatment effect.

  • Li M
  • Qu K
  • Lei Q
  • Chen M
  • Bian D
  • et al.
Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2023 Aug 29; doi: 10.1007/s00266-023-03603-9.
BACKGROUND:

Androgenetic alopecia (AGA) is a common yet difficult-to-treat condition, which is an important psychosocial problem. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) therapy has been considered as a promising treatment for AGA. However, the current evidence on the efficacy of PRP for treating AGA is still controversial. This study evaluated the efficacy of PRP monotherapy in the treatment of AGA.

METHODS:

We searched PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library and Web of Science to collect randomized controlled trials on use of PRP in AGA for a meta-analysis.

RESULTS:

Ten trials with a total 555 treatment units were identified. The hair density in PRP group was significantly higher than control group [MD = 25.09, 95%CI: 9.03-41.15, p = 0.002], but there was no significant difference in hair diameter between two groups [SMD = 0.57, 95%CI: - 0.23 to 1.38, p = 0.16]. Subgroup analyses indicated that hair density was significantly higher among the male-only trials than in the mixed-sex samples (p = 0.02). In addition, neither the split-head design nor the year of publication affected hair density (p = 0.05, p = 0.06). However, hair density was significantly higher in trials with a sample size less than 30 (p = 0.0004).

CONCLUSIONS:

PRP treatment increased hair density in participants with AGA, but not hair diameter. In terms of hair density, PRP elicits stronger effects in male patients. There was a trend toward differed treatment effect by gender with PRP injection, which warrants further investigation. Especially in the case of female.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III:

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors https://www.springer.com/00266 .

  • Xiao D
  • Tang F
  • Chen L
  • Gao H
  • Li X
Front Cardiovasc Med. 2022 Jan 25;8:819318 doi: 10.3389/fcvm.2021.819318.
BACKGROUND:

Although thrombosis events have been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the association between thrombosis and COVID-19-related critical status or risk of mortality in COVID-19 has been inconsistent.

OBJECTIVE:

We conducted a meta-analysis of reports assessing the association between thrombosis and the prognosis of COVID-19.

METHODS:

The EMBASE, Ovid-MEDLINE, and Web of Science databases were searched up to December 9, 2021, and additional studies were retrieved via manual searching. Studies were included if they reported the risk of COVID-19-related critical status or COVID-19-related mortality in relation to thrombosis. The related data were extracted by two authors independently, and a random effects model was conducted to pool the odds ratios (ORs). In addition, stratified analyses were conducted to evaluate the association.

RESULTS:

Among 6,686 initially identified studies, we included 25 studies published in 2020 and 2021, with a total of 332,915 patients according to predefined inclusion criteria. The associations between thrombosis and COVID-19-related mortality and COVID-19-related critical status were significant, with ORs of 2.61 (95% CI, 1.91-3.55, p < 0.05) and 2.9 (95% CI, 1.6-5.24, p < 0.05), respectively. The results were statistically significant and consistent in stratified analyses.

CONCLUSIONS:

Thrombosis is associated with an increased risk of mortality and critical status induced by COVID-19. Further prospective studies with large sample sizes are required to establish whether these associations are causal by considering more confounders and to clarify their mechanisms.Observational studies cannot prove causality. However, autopsy studies show thrombosis events preceding COVID-19-related deaths. The results of this meta-analysis reported that thrombosis was associated with a 161% increased risk of mortality from COVID-19 and a 190% increased risk of COVID-19-related critical status. The type of thrombosis included in the original studies also seemed to be related to the results.

  • Cui LY
  • Cheng WW
  • Mou ZW
  • Xiao D
  • Li YY
  • et al.
Int J Infect Dis. 2021 Oct;111:154-163 doi: 10.1016/j.ijid.2021.08.017.
PURPOSE:

To detect the risk factors for pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients with COVID-19.

METHODS:

Studies were searched for in PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EMBASE. Two authors independently screened articles and extracted data. The data were pooled by meta-analysis and three subgroup analyses were performed.

RESULTS:

Of the 2210 articles identified, 27 studies were included. Pooled analysis suggested that males (odds ratio (OR) 1.49, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.75, P = 0.000), obesity (OR 1.37, 95% CI 1.03-1.82, P = 0.033), mechanical ventilation (OR 3.34, 95% CI 1.90-5.86, P = 0.000), severe parenchymal abnormalities (OR 1.92, 95% CI 1.43-2.58, P = 0.000), ICU admission (OR 2.44, 95% CI 1.48-4.03, P = 0.000), and elevated D-dimer and white blood cell values (at two time points: hospital admission or closest to computed tomography pulmonary angiography) (P = 0.000) correlated with a risk for PE occurrence in COVID-19 patients. However, age and common comorbidities had no association with PE occurrence. Computed tomography pulmonary angiography, unclear-ratio/low-ratio, and hospitalization subgroups had consistent risk factors with all studies; however, other subgroups had fewer risk factors for PE.

CONCLUSIONS:

Risk factors for PE in COVID-19 were different from the classic risk factors for PE and are likely to differ in diverse study populations.

  • Chen XT
  • Fang W
  • Jones IA
  • Heckmann ND
  • Park C
  • et al.
Arthroscopy. 2021 Sep;37(9):2937-2952 doi: 10.1016/j.arthro.2021.04.061.
PURPOSE:

To assess the efficacy of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for lateral epicondylitis and evaluate its impact on pain and functional outcomes.

METHODS:

This study followed Preferred Reporting Items and Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. A comprehensive literature search was conducted in September 2019 and repeated in April 2020 using electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Baseline and 3-, 6-, and 12-month data were extracted for visual analog scale (VAS), Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand (DASH), and modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow (MAYO) scores. Only level 1 studies with patients who had not undergone surgery were included. Outcomes data, study design, demographic variables, PRP formulation, and comparator treatments were recorded. Statistical analyses of pooled weighted mean differences (WMDs) were performed and compared with estimated minimal clinically important difference (MCID) values. The Coleman Methodology Score (CMS) was used to assess methodological quality, and the Cochrane risk-of-bias assessment was performed.

RESULTS:

This review included 16 level I studies, 9 of which (581 total patients, 281 receiving single injections of PRP) were quantitatively analyzed. The average age was 41.5 years, 56.8% of patients were female, and mean follow-up was 7.5 months. The mean CMS was 78.94 ± 12.74 (range 59 to 97), and 5 of 16 studies were at low risk for bias. Patients who received PRP had significantly improved VAS scores at 3 months (WMD -0.85; 95% confidence interval [CI] -1.03, -0.66; P < .01) and 6 months (WMD -0.74; 95% CI -0.98, -0.50; P < .01) compared with those who received autologous whole blood, though MAYO scores were statistically equivalent. Comparing PRP to corticosteroids, VAS and DASH scores were not significantly different at 3 months, although PRP was superior at 6 months for VAS (WMD -1.70; 95% CI -2.65, -0.75; P < .01) and DASH (WMD -6.23; 95% CI -10.78, -1.69; P < .01). Most differences in VAS and DASH scores exceeded the 5% absolute difference estimate for their respective MCIDs but fell short of the 10% estimate.

CONCLUSION:

Considering the small number of comparable studies, lack of quantification of specific PRP content, considerable heterogeneity between randomized control trials, and most effect sizes being equivocal within the framework of 2 estimated MCID values, the authors can neither scientifically support nor discourage the usage of PRP for lateral epicondylitis despite finding statistically significant improvements in pain and functional outcomes.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE:

I, prognostic.

  • Luo C
  • Chen F
  • Chen YH
  • Zhao CF
  • Feng CZ
  • et al.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2021 Mar;25(6):2637-2653 doi: 10.26355/eurrev_202103_25428.

There are potential concerns related to bleeding caused by oral anticoagulants, especially in the elderly. Andexanet alfa has been authorized for use to reverse the effects of oral anticoagulants. Off-label use of four factor prothrombin complex concentrate (4F-PCC) for the reversal of oral factor Xa inhibitors is common. However, not much is known about their efficacy and safety profile. The intent of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of 4F-PCC and andexanet alfa for management of major bleeding due to oral factor Xa inhibitors. Comprehensive searches were done systematically through PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar databases. Studies that were retrospective record based or adopted prospective cohort approach and reported either of the three main outcomes, i.e., achieved hemostasis rate or rate of thrombotic events or mortality rate were included in the meta-analysis. Statistical analyses were done using STATA version 13.0. A total of 22 studies were included in the meta-analysis. All the studies had a single arm with no control/comparator group. The pooled rate of good to excellent hemostatic control upon use of andexanet was 80% (95% CI; 72% to 88%) and for 4F-PCC, it was 76% (95% CI; 70% to 83%). A comparatively higher pooled rate of thrombotic complications upon use of andexanet [13% (95% CI; 5% to 20%) was noted, compared to use of aPCC/4F-PCC [4% (95% CI; 3% to 5%). The pooled all-cause mortality rate within 30 days of administration was 24% (95% CI; 12% to 35%) with andexanet use and 19% (95% CI; 14% to 25%) for aPCC/4F-PCC. The findings suggest that use of both andexanet and aPCC/4F-PCC achieves a good hemostasis but there is an associated risk of thrombotic events and mortality. Future studies should have a control group to better establish evidence on efficacy and safety of these agents.

  • Tsai YS
  • Hsu LW
  • Wu MS
  • Chen KH
  • Kang YN
Clin Drug Investig. 2020 Sep;40(9):789-797 doi: 10.1007/s40261-020-00946-y.
BACKGROUND:

Hemoptysis, a common symptom of different lung diseases, engenders shortness of breath and increased mortality. Tranexamic acid (TXA), a commonly used antifibrinolytic agent, can control bleeding. However, the effects of its use on pulmonary hemorrhage have rarely been discussed.

OBJECTIVE:

We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of TXA for hemoptysis to investigate its effectiveness in reducing hemoptysis volume and duration.

METHODS:

We searched the Cochrane Library, Embase, PubMed (including MEDLINE), and Scopus databases for relevant RCTs. Two of the authors individually assessed study quality by using the Cochrane risk-of-bias (RoB) 2.0 tool, and the pooled results were evaluated using RevMan 5.3.

RESULTS:

We obtained 617 articles, of which four RCTs met eligibility criteria. The pooled results demonstrated no significant differences in bleeding duration or hemoptysis resolution between the TXA and control groups. Nevertheless, TXA use reduced bleeding volume (mean difference [MD] =  - 56.21 mL; 95% CI - 94.70 to - 17.72 mL), further intervention risk (Peto odds ratio = 0.24; 95% CI 0.08-0.67; I2 = 0%), and length of hospital stay (MD =  - 1.62 days; 95% CI - 2.93 to - 0.31; I2 = 0%).

CONCLUSION:

TXA use was observed to reduce bleeding volume, further intervention risk, and length of hospital stay in patients with hemoptysis; however, our results may have low statistical power because of limited sample size. Additional large-scale RCTs are thus warranted to confirm the effectiveness and safety of TXA use.

  • Hsieh TS
  • Chiu WK
  • Yang TF
  • Wang HJ
  • Chen C
Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2019 Dec;43(6):1615-1623 doi: 10.1007/s00266-019-01471-w.
BACKGROUND:

A number of studies have investigated the role of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) as an assisted therapy for atrophic acne scars. However, the results are diverse, and no up-to-date meta-analysis was found that exclusively examined atrophic acne scar treatment.

OBJECTIVES:

To perform a meta-analysis to assess improvements in the side effects of PRP and the effect of assisted therapy for atrophic acne scars.

METHODS:

This study followed PRISMA guidelines. A comprehensive search of the literature was carried out in September 2018 using the electronic databases of PubMed, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library.

RESULTS:

Seven articles were included in this review. All of the studies published utilized PRP as additive therapy. The major therapies included fractional carbon laser therapy and microneedling. Five studies (249 participants) reported four degrees of improvement on an improvement scale (degrees 3 and 4 were considered improvement in this analysis). Four studies (200 participants) reported mean improvement scores. A significantly higher degree of improvement was shown in the PRP group compared to the control group (OR = 8.19; 95% CI 4.32-15.52; p < 0.00001), as well as better mean improvement score (WMD = 23.73; 95% CI 18.60-28.87; p < 0.00001). Substantial heterogeneity was seen in the degree of improvement (I2 = 54% p = 0.07) and the mean improvement score (I2 = 75%; p = 0.008). There were overall fewer monitored side effects, including erythema and edema (in days), in the PRP groups; however, no significance was found.

CONCLUSIONS:

This review shows that PRP is a useful assisted therapy for atrophic acne scars, which can achieve better improvement.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE III:

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266.

  • Li Y
  • Yu Y
  • Chen S
  • Liao Y
  • Du J
Front Pediatr. 2019 Aug 16;7:342 doi: 10.3389/fped.2019.00342.

Background: The efficacy of corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in pediatric myocarditis remains controversial. Objectives: The authors performed a meta-analysis to assess the therapeutic efficacy of corticosteroids and IVIG in children with myocarditis. Methods: We retrieved the trials on corticosteroids and IVIG therapy, respectively, in pediatric myocarditis from nine databases up to December 2018. Statistical analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.3. Results: Our analysis included 8 studies and 334 pediatric patients. The data demonstrated that children receiving corticosteroids showed no significant improvement on left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) from 1 to 8 month-follow-up (MD = 5.17%, 95% CI = -0.26% to 10.60%, P = 0.06), and no significant improvement in death or heart transplantation incidence at the end of follow-up (OR = 1.33, 95% CI = 0.27-6.70, P = 0.73). However, children receiving IVIG revealed a statistically remarkable increase in LVEF at a follow-up over the course of 6 months to 1 year (MD = 18.91%, 95% CI = 11.74-26.08%, P < 0.00001), and a decrease in death or heart transplantation at the end of follow-up (OR = 0.31, 95% CI = 0.12-0.75, P = 0.01). Further comparisons showed that the mortality and heart transplantation rate of children with myocarditis treated with IVIG were significantly lower than those with corticosteroid therapy (t' = 11.336, P < 0.001). Conclusions: IVIG might be beneficial to improve LVEF and survival for myocarditis in children. However, the present evidence does not support corticosteroids as superior to conventional therapy in children with myocarditis. Further randomized controlled trials with a larger sample size are required.