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  • Fang M
  • Zhou J
  • Huang S
  • Zhang Y
  • He Y
  • et al.
BMJ Open. 2022 Dec 7;12(12):e056689 doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2021-056689.

Recent studies in animal models indicate that recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO) is very effective in enhancing neurological recovery after spinal cord injury (SCI). We described a protocol aimed at evaluating the efficacy of rHuEPO plus methylprednisolone (MP) compared with MP alone in improving neurological function of patients with SCI in randomised controlled trials (RCTs).


This study aims to explore the effect of rHuEPO combined with MP on neurological function in patients with SCI through a meta-analysis. To this end, the authors will search eight research databases for data retrieval: MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wan Fang, China Biology Medicine dis, Web of Science, PubMed, Cochrane and Embase for RCTs on SCI in any language. The primary outcome will be the American Spinal Injury Association score at the time of follow-up. The secondary outcomes will be the WHOQOL-100 instrument score, neurophysiological state and related factors. Two authors will independently search literature records, scan titles, abstracts and full texts, collect data, and assess materials for risk of bias. Stata V.14.0 will be used for statistical analysis.


This research is exempt from ethics approval because the work is carried out on published documents. We will disseminate this protocol in scientific conferences and a peer-reviewed journal.



  • Li JF
  • Li H
  • Zhao H
  • Wang J
  • Liu S
  • et al.
J Orthop Surg Res. 2017 Feb 2;12(1):22 doi: 10.1186/s13018-017-0520-4.

This meta-analysis aimed to evaluate the efficiency and safety of combined intravenous and topical methods of application versus single intravenous of tranexamic acid in primary total knee and hip arthroplasty.


A systematic search was carried out in MEDLINE (from 1966 to 25 September 2016), PubMed (from 1966 to 25 September 2016), Embase (from 1980 to 25 September 2016), ScienceDirect (from 1985 to 25 September 2016) and the Cochrane Library. Only high-quality randomised controlled trials (RCT) were identified. Two authors independently performed data extraction and quality assessment of included studies. Meta-analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.1 software.


Six RCTs that included 687 patients met the inclusion criteria. The present meta-analysis indicated that there were significant differences in terms of total blood loss (MD = -193.59, 95% CI -338.06 to -49.13, P = 0.009), transfusion rate (RD = -0.07, 95% CI -0.12 to -0.03, P = 0.001), haemoglobin decline (MD = -0.51, 95% CI -0.83 to -0.18, P = 0.01) and length of stay (MD = -0.20, 95% CI -0.38 to -0.02, P = 0.03) between groups.


Combined administration of tranexamic acid (TXA) in patients with total knee and hip arthroplasty was associated with significantly reduced total blood loss, transfusion requirements, postoperative haemoglobin decline and length of stay compared to single application alone but was not associated with prolonged operation time. Moreover, no adverse effects, such as superficial infection, deep vein thrombus (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE), were associated with TXA. We suggest that combined administration of TXA demonstrated excellent clinical efficacy and safety in patients with total knee and hip arthroplasty. More importantly, well-designed studies with larger sample size are needed to provide further reliable evidence for the combined use of TXA.