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  • Wang S
  • Yang J
  • Lin L
Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2024 Feb;48(3):543-558 doi: 10.1007/s00266-023-03637-z.
BACKGROUND:

Tranexamic acid (TXA) is a versatile antifibrinolytic agent that is widely used in modern surgeries. This review assessed the safety and efficacy of intravenous (IV) TXA in plastic surgery versus controls.

METHODS:

This review selected English-language Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) evaluating IV TXA effects in plastic surgery from four electronic databases, PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and Cochrane Library up to April 9, 2023. Primary outcomes were blood loss volume (BLV) and transfusion occurrence, with operation time and surgical field assessment as secondary outcomes. IV TXA-related complications were also important indicators. Meta-analyses and qualitative analyses were conducted and the quality of the evidence was assessed.

RESULTS:

Thirty RCTs with 2150 patients were included. The total standard mean difference (SMD) of BLV and pooled relative risk of transfusion occurrence between the IV TXA and the control groups were - 1.11 (95% CI, - 1.42 to - 0.80) and 0.36 (95% CI, 0.23 to 0.55) respectively, indicating a significant blood loss reduction with IV TXA treatment, while an ambiguous outcome of operation time was observed, with an SMD of - 0.22 (95% CI, - 0.42 to - 0.02). The quality of evidence for BLV and transfusion occurrence was low and medium, respectively. A quantitative analysis of surgical field assessment was not performed because of the substantial heterogeneity in scoring methods. No IV TXA-related complications were observed.

CONCLUSIONS:

In plastic surgery, IV TXA administration results in less blood loss, reduced need for transfusion and better surgical fields but probably does not increase the risk of adverse events.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE I:

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine Ratings, please refer to Table of Contents or online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  • Wang S
  • Yang J
  • Lin L
Aesthetic Plast Surg. 2023 Aug;47(4):1633-1643 doi: 10.1007/s00266-023-03281-7.
BACKGROUND:

According to recent evidence, the use of local tranexamic acid (TXA) during plastic surgery may lessen blood loss.

OBJECTIVES:

To comprehensively assess the use of local TXA during plastic surgery through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials addressing these issues.

METHODS:

Four electronic databases, including PubMed, Web of Science, Embase and the Cochrane Library, were searched until December 12, 2022. Following meta-analyses, the mean difference (MD) or standardized mean difference (SMD) for blood loss volume (BLV), ΔHct, ΔHb and operation time were calculated when appropriate.

RESULTS:

Eleven randomized controlled trials were included in the qualitative synthesis, while 8 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with the control group, the local TXA group showed a reduction in blood loss volume of -1.05 (p < 0.00001; 95% CI, -1.72 to -0.38). However, local TXA had a limited effect on reducing ΔHct, ΔHb and operation time. A meta-analysis was not performed because of heterogeneity in other outcomes; however, except for 1 study in which no significant difference was observed on POD 1, all studies showed significantly lower rates of postoperative ecchymosis after surgery, 2 studies showed statistically significant reductions in transfusion risk or volume, and 3 studies reported significantly better surgical field quality in operations with local TXA. In the 2 included studies, the researchers concluded that local treatment does not play a role in relieving postoperative pain.

CONCLUSIONS:

Local TXA is associated with less blood loss, less ecchymosis and better surgical field in plastic surgery patients.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE I:

This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .